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Experiments with the bonding machine Show image information
Quality evaluation of bonded interconnects using a shear tester. Show image information
Reliability analysis of a friction clutch. Show image information
Lab work in teaching. Show image information
Transport of fine powder using ultrasonic vibrations Show image information

Experiments with the bonding machine

Quality evaluation of bonded interconnects using a shear tester.

Reliability analysis of a friction clutch.

Lab work in teaching.

Transport of fine powder using ultrasonic vibrations

Dynamics and Mechatronics (LDM)

Members of the Chair of Dynamics and Mechatronics

Reinhard Schemmel

 Reinhard Schemmel

Dynamics and Mechatronics (LDM)

Research Assistant - Ultrasonic Bonding

+49 5251 60-1810
+49 5251 60-1803
Pohlweg 47-49
33098 Paderborn

Open list in Research Information System


Using complex multi-dimensional vibration trajectories in ultrasonic bonding and welding

R. Schemmel, T. Hemsel, C. Dymel, M. Hunstig, M. Brökelmann, W. Sextro, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical (2019), 295, pp. 653 - 662

Ultrasonic joining is a common industrial process. In the electronics industry it is used to form electrical connections, including those of dissimilar materials. Multiple influencing factors in ultrasonic joining are known and extensively investigated; process parameters like ultrasonic power, bond force, and bonding frequency of the ultrasonic vibration are known to have a high impact on a reliable joining process and need to be adapted for each new application with different geometry or materials. This contribution is focused on increasing ultrasonic power transmitted to the interface and keeping mechanical stresses during ultrasonic bonding low by using a multi-dimensional ultrasonic transducer concept. Bonding results for a new designed connector pin in IGBT-modules achieved by multi- and one-dimensional bonding are discussed.

Impact of multi-dimensional vibration trajectories on quality and failure modes in ultrasonic bonding

R. Schemmel, F. Eacock, C. Dymel, T. Hemsel, M. Hunstig, M. Brökelmann, W. Sextro, in: International Symposium on Microelectronics, 2019, pp. 000509-000514

<jats:p> Ultrasonic joining is a common industrial process. To build electrical connections in the electronics industry, uni-axial and torsional ultrasonic vibration have been used to join different types of workpieces for decades. Many influencing factors like ultrasonic power, bond normal force, bond duration and frequency are known to have a high impact on bond quality and reliability. Multi-dimensional bonding has been investigated in the past to increase ultrasonic power and consequently bond strength. This contribution is focused on the comparison of circular, multi-frequency planar and uniaxial vibration trajectories used for ultrasonic bonding of copper pins on copper substrate. Bond quality was analyzed by shear tests, scanning acoustic microscopy and interface cross-sections. </jats:p>


Numerical and statistical investigation of weld formation in a novel two-dimensional copper-copper bonding process

C. Dymel, P. Eichwald, R. Schemmel, T. Hemsel, M. Brökelmann, M. Hunstig, W. Sextro, in: (Proceedings of 7th Electronics System-Integration Technology Conference, Dresden, Germany), 2018, pp. 1-6

State-of-the-art industrial compact high power electronic packages require copper-copper interconnections with larger cross sections made by ultrasonic bonding. In comparison to aluminium-copper, copper-copper interconnections require increased normal forces and ultrasonic power, which might lead to substrate damage due to increased mechanical stresses. One option to raise friction energy without increasing vibration amplitude between wire and substrate or bonding force is the use of two-dimensional vibration. The first part of this contribution reports on the development of a novel bonding system that executes two-dimensional vibrations of a tool-tip to bond a nail- like pin onto a copper substrate. Since intermetallic bonds only form properly when surfaces are clean, oxide free and activated, the geometries of tool-tip and pin were optimised using finite element analysis. To maximize the area of the bonded annulus the distribution of normal pressure was optimized by varying the convexity of the bottom side of the pin. Second, a statistical model obtained from an experimental parameter study shows the influence of different bonding parameters on the bond result. To find bonding parameters with the minimum number of tests, the experiments have been planned using a D-optimal experimental design approach.

Effects of different working frequencies on the joint formation in copper wire bonding

R. Schemmel, S. Althoff, W. Sextro, A. Unger, M. Brökelmann, M. Hunstig, in: CIPS 2018 - 10th International Conference on Integrated Power Electronics Systems (CIPS 2018), 2018, pp. 230-235

Ultrasonic wire bonding is used to connect the electrical terminals of semiconductor modules in power electronics. Mul- tiple influencing factors in wedge/wedge bonding are known and extensively investigated. A constructively settable but rarely examined parameter is the bonding frequency. In case of bonding on challenging substrates, e.g. supple substruc- tures, a high influence of the working frequency is observed. The choice of the working frequency is typically based on experimental investigations for a certain component or substrate and needs to be evaluated anew for new applications. A profound understanding of the influence of the working frequency is required to achieve a reliable bond process and a short process development. Here a generalized model for the numerical simulation of the bond formation with respect to the dynamics of the substructure is presented. The simulation results are compared to experiments using 300 µm copper wire at different working frequencies and geometries of the substructure.

Experimental investigations on the impact of bond process parameters in two-dimensional ultrasonic copper bonding

C. Dymel, R. Schemmel, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, M. Brökelmann, M. Hunstig, in: (Proceedings of 8th Electronics IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan (ICSJ 2018), Kyoto, Japan), 2018, pp. 41-44

Ultrasonic bonding and welding are common friction based approaches in the assembly of power electronics. Interconnections with cross-sections of 0.3 mm² up to 12 mm² made from copper are well suited in high power applications. For increasing friction energy, which is responsible for bond formation, a two-dimensional vibration approach is applied to newly developed interconnection pins. Using two-dimensional vibration for bonding requires identification of suitable bonding parameters. Even though simulation models of wire bonding processes exist, parameters for the two-dimensional pin-bonding process cannot be derived accurately yet. Within this contribution, a methodology and workflow for experimental studies identifying a suitable bond parameter space are presented. The results of a pre-study are used to set up an extensive statistical parameter study, which gives insights about the bond strength change due to bond process parameter variation. By evaluation of electrical data captured during bonding, errors biasing the resulting shear forces are identified. All data obtained during the experimental study is used to build a statistical regression model suitable for predicting shear forces. The accuracy of the regression model’s predictions is determined and the applicability to predict process parameters or validate simulation models is assessed. Finally, the influence of the tool trajectory on the bond formation is determined, comparing one dimensional, elliptic and circular trajectories.

Numerical and experimental investigations in ultrasonic heavy wire bonding

R. Schemmel, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM 6), 2018, pp. 1-12

Ultrasonic wedge/wedge-wire bonding is used to connect electrical terminals of semiconductor modules in power electronics. The wire is clamped with a tool by a normal force and ultrasonic vibration is transmitted through the wire into the interface between wire and substrate. Due to frictional processes contaminations like oxide layers are removed from the contact zone and the surface roughness is reduced, thus the real contact area is increased. In the next step of bond formation, thermomechanical forces create micro-junctions between the wire and substrate and the bond strength increases. The bond parameters like the bond normal force, the ultrasonic vibration amplitude and the geometry of the clamping tool show a high influence on the strength and reliability of the wire bond and need to be investigated in detail. Therefore, in this contribution the dynamical behaviour of the ultrasonic system, the wire and the substrate are modeled in form of substructures, which are connected by the friction contacts between tool and wire and between wire and substrate. Approaches for modelling the time variant contact behaviour, the substrate dynamics, and the model order reduction for a time efficient simulation are described to simulate the full bonding process.


MoRFUS: Mobile Reinigungseinheit für Förderketten basierend auf Ultraschall

R. Schemmel, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: 43. Deutsche Jahrestagung für Akustik, 2017, pp. 611-614

ln der industriellen Fertigung werden zum Transport von Bauteilen häufig Förderketten genutzt. Obwohl die Förderketten meist nicht direkt mit den Arbeitsmedien in Berührung kommen, werden sie indirekt durch vagabundierende Stäube und Pulver, die an der geölten Kette anhaften, im Laufe der Zeit stark verschmutzt. Ein derart im Betrieb verschmutztes Kettenglied ist in Abbildung 1 dargestellt. Um die Lebensdauer der Ketten zu erhöhen und das Herunterfallen von Schmutzpartikel auf die Produkte zu vermeiden, muss die Kette regelmäßig gereinigt werden. Ziel des hier beschriebenen Forschungsvorhabens ist die Entwicklung eines Systems, das in der Lage ist, ein einzelnes Kettenglied in unter 60 s mittels Ultraschall zu reinigen. In [1] wurde in ersten Versuchen nachgewiesen, dass Stabschwinger in Abhängigkeit des Sonotrodenabstands zum Reinigungsobjekt und der Ultraschallamplitude eine intensive Reinigungswirkung entfalten. Das Konzept der Reinigungsanlage sieht deshalb vor, im ersten Schritt die stark verschmutzten Kettenglieder durch ein hochintensives Kavitationsfeld von direkt eingetauchten Stabschwingern vorzureinigen und anschließend schwer zugängliche Be- reiche wie Hinterschneidungen oder Bohrungen mittels konventioneller Tauchschwinger von Verschmutzungen zu befreien. Für den Stabschwinger wird die sogenannte - Sonotrode untersucht; diese wird unter anderem auch in der Sonochemie verwendet. Ein wesentliches Merkmal der Sonotrode ist eine hohe Amplitudenübersetzung bei einer gleichzeitig großen Abstrahlfläche. Neben dem Entwurf mittels der L /2 -Synthese wird die Reinigungswirkung der Sonotrode in Abhängigkeit der Ultraschallamplitude und dem Abstand zum Reinigungsobjekt in einer Versuchsreihe untersucht. Zur genaueren Betrachtung der Reinigungs- mechanismen eines Stabschwingers werden abschließend Hochgeschwindigkeitsaufnahmen vorgestellt und analysieren.

Multi-dimensional Ultrasonic Copper Bonding – New Challenges for Tool Design

P. Eichwald, S. Althoff, R. Schemmel, W. Sextro, A. Unger, M. Brökelmann, M. Hunstig, IMAPSource (2017), Vol. 2017, No. 1

In power electronics, copper connector pins are e.g. used to connect control boards with power modules. The new chip generation based on SiC and GaN technology increase the power density of semiconductor modules significantly with junction temperatures reaching 200°C. To enable reliable operation at such high temperature, the soldering of these connector pins should be substituted by a multi-dimensional copper-copper bonding technology. A copper pin welded directly on DBC substrate also simplifies the assembly. With this aim, a proper bond tool and a suitable connector pin geometry are designed. This paper presents a two-dimensional trajectory approach for ultrasonic bonding of copper pieces, e.g. connector pins, with the intention to minimize mechanical stresses exposed to the substrate. This is achieved using a multi-dimensional vibration system with multiple transducers known from flip chip bonding. Applying a planar relative motion between the bonding piece and the substrate increases the induced frictional power compared to one-dimensional excitation. The core of this work is the development of a new tool design which enables a reliable and effective transmission of the multidimensional vibration into the contact area between nail-shaped bonding piece and substrate. For this purpose, different bonding tool as well as bonding piece designs are discussed. A proper bonding tool design is selected based on the simulated alternatives. This tool is examined in bonding experiments and the results are presented. In addition, different grades of hardness for bonding piece and substrate are examined as well as different bonding parameters. Optical inspection of the bonded area shows the emergence of initial micro welds in form of a ring which is growing in direction of the interface boundaries with increasing bonding duration.


Validated Simulation of the Ultrasonic Wire Bonding Process

A. Unger, R. Schemmel, T. Meyer, F. Eacock, P. Eichwald, S. Althoff, W. Sextro, M. Brökelmann, M. Hunstig, K. Guth, in: Wear Modeling in Copper Wire Wedge Bonding. IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan, 2016, 2016, pp. 251-254

To increase quality and reliability of copper wire bonds, self-optimization is a promising technique. For the implementation of self-optimization for ultrasonic heavy copper wire bonding machines, a model of stick-slip motion between tool and wire and between wire and substrate during the bonding process is essential. Investigations confirm that both of these contacts do indeed show stick-slip movement in each period oscillation. In a first step, this paper shows the importance of modeling the stick-slip effect by determining, monitoring and analyzing amplitudes and phase angles of tooltip, wire and substrate experimentally during bonding via laser measurements. In a second step, the paper presents a dynamic model which has been parameterized using an iterative numerical parameter identification method. This model includes Archard’s wear approach in order to compute the lost volume of tool tip due to wear over the entire process time. A validation of the model by comparing measured and calculated amplitudes of tool tip and wire reveals high model quality. Then it is then possible to calculate the lifetime of the tool for different process parameters, i.e. values of normal force and ultrasonic voltage.

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