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Mitarbeiter der Fakultät für Maschinenbau

Dr.-Ing. Tobias Hemsel

Dr.-Ing. Tobias Hemsel

Dynamics and Mechatronics (LDM)

Second Head - Employee - Head of Engineering, Team Leader "Ultrasonic Systems and Processes"

+49 5251 60-1805
+49 5251 60-1803
Office hours:

by appointment

Pohlweg 47-49
33098 Paderborn

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Research Associate - Vorsitzender der Kommission für die Vergabe von Mitteln der Forschungskommission

+49 5251 60-1805
+49 5251 60-1803
Pohlweg 47-49
33098 Paderborn
Dr.-Ing. Tobias Hemsel
04/2009 - today

Universität Paderborn

Head of engineering at the chair of dynamics and mechatronics within the faculty of mechanical enginereering;

Teaching in the field of metrology, sensors and actuators, multifunctioal materials, engineering mechanics;

Research in the field of piezoelectric systesms and multifunctional materials

04/2007 - 03/2009

Universität Paderborn

Kommissarische Leitung der Fachgruppe Mechatronik und Dynamik des Heinz Nixdorf Instituts

01/2009 - 03/2009

Universität Tokio, Kashiwa Campus

Forschungsaufenthalt als "Visiting Professor"

07/2001 - 03/2007

Universität Paderborn

Oberingenieur der Fachgruppe Mechatronik und Dynamik des Heinz Nixdorf Instituts;

2003 und 2005 Auszeichnung mit dem Forschungspreis der Universität Paderborn

10/2003 - 12/2003

Philips CFT, Eindhoven

Forschungsaufenthalt, Projektbearbeitung im Bereich Schwingungsantriebe

04/1996 - 07/2001

Universität Paderborn

Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter in der Fachgruppe Mechatronik und Dynamik des Heinz Nixdorf Instituts;

Promotion mit Auszeichnung zum Thema "Lineare piezoelektrische Schwingungsantriebe"

10/1990 - 03/1996

Universität Paderborn

Studium Maschinenbau, Schwerpunkt Konstruktionstechnik

Open list in Research Information System


Experimental Investigation of Multidimensional Ultrasonic Heavy Wire Bonding

C. Scheidemann, O. Kirsch, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: 2022 IEEE 9th Electronics System-Integration Technology Conference (ESTC), IEEE, 2022

ue to the constantly growing energy demand of power electronics and the need to reduce the size of electronic components like power modules for e-mobility, new challenges arise for ultrasonic wire bonding: the electrical connection must endure higher thermal and mechanical stress while the connecting partners become more sensitive or require more energy to get bonded. Past investigations have shown already that multi-dimensional ultrasonic bonding and welding yield the same or even better bond quality while reducing the load on the components. This contribution is intended to show whether multidi-mensional thick wire bonding is a promising concept to over-come the new challenges. The focus is on experimental investi-gations of different bond tool trajectories in ultrasonic wire bonding of aluminum and copper wire on DCB's and chips. The bond quality is analyzed by shear tests, microsections and, in the case of aluminum bonding, by a new machine learning method for an objective automated evaluation of the sheared area.

Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Power Transducers

T. Hemsel, J. Twiefel, in: Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, Elsevier, 2022

This article is dedicated to piezoelectric ultrasonic power transducers that differ to well known medical ultrasonic diagnostic apparatus or non destructive testing devices by the level of power in use; typically several tens of up to more than thousand watts are used in a multitude of different applications. After a short introduction including historical development, the first focus is on theoretical background of the operating principle, design and mechanical modeling. As piezoelectric elements transform electrical to mechanical energy and vice versa, equivalent circuit modeling is also described. After that, sample applications are delineated by the matter wherein ultrasound generates unique effects: incredible high pressure level as well in air as in water, micro-bubbles generating temperature peaks for very short time instances in fluids, acoustoplastic effect, enhancement of diffusion and recrystallization in solids, friction manipulation, incremental deformation and micro-cracking of surfaces, or even generation of macroscopic movements in motors. At the end, some future directions ranging from novel modeling approaches to advanced control and new materials are addressed.


Experimental investigation of the influence of different bond tool grooves on the bond quality for ultrasonic thick wire bonding

O.E.C. Hagedorn, M. Broll, O. Kirsch, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro. Experimental investigation of the influence of different bond tool grooves on the bond quality for ultrasonic thick wire bonding. In: International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators, 2021.

Co-simulation of MATLAB and ANSYS for ultrasonic wire bonding process optimization

R. Schemmel, V. Krieger, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, Microelectronics Reliability (2021), 119, pp. 114077

Ultrasonic wire bonding is a solid-state joining process, used in the electronics industry to form electrical connections, e.g. to connect electrical terminals within semiconductor modules. Many process parameters affect the bond strength, such like the bond normal force, ultrasonic power, wire material and bonding frequency. Today, process design, development, and optimization is most likely based on the knowledge of process engineers and is mainly performed by experimental testing. In this contribution, a newly developed simulation tool is presented, to reduce time and costs and efficiently determine optimized process parameter. Based on a co-simulation of MATLAB and ANSYS, the different physical phenomena of the wire bonding process are considered using finite element simulation for the complex plastic deformation of the wire and reduced order models for the transient dynamics of the transducer, wire, substrate and bond formation. The model parameters such as the coefficients of friction between bond tool and wire and between wire and substrate were determined for aluminium and copper wire in experiments with a test rig specially developed for the requirements of heavy wire bonding. To reduce simulation time, for the finite element simulation a restart analysis and high performance computing is utilized. Detailed analysis of the bond formation showed, that the normal pressure distribution in the contact between wire and substrate has high impact on bond formation and distribution of welded areas in the contact area.


Experimental analysis and modelling of bond formation in ultrasonic heavy wire bonding

R. Schemmel, C. Scheidemann, T. Hemsel, O.. Kirsch, W. Sextro, in: CIPS 2020; 11th International Conference on Integrated Power Electronics Systems, 2020, pp. 1-6

Ultrasonic wire bonding is a process to form electrical connections in electronics well established industry. Typically, a clamping tool is pressed on the wire and forced to vibrate at relative high frequency 40 to 100 kHz. The ultrasonic vibration is transmitted through the wire into the interface between wire and substrate. Due to frictional processes, contamination like oxide layers are removed from the contact zone, the surface roughness is reduced, and with increasing bond duration an metallic connection of wire and substrate is established. It is known that the amount of ultrasonic energy over time directly influences the strength and reliability of the bond connection, but the determination of optimum bond parameters is still a challenging experimental task. For this, in the past different model approaches have been presented, to calculate the bond quality by simulation. Measuring the friction between wire and substrate to validate these models is a challenging task at ultrasonic bonding frequency. Therefore a versatile test rig for bonding experiments at frequencies lower than 1 kHz is setup to get detailed insight into the different phases of the connection process. It includes a piezoelectric force sensor for the measurement of the three-dimensional process forces, an electrodynamic shaker for the vibration excitation and a conventional tension-compression testing machine to apply the bond normal force. Using this test rig, it is possible to observe the different phases of bond formation in detail, validate and enhance existing models and finally optimize bond parameters for different processes.

Co-simulation of MATLAB and ANSYS for ultrasonic wire bonding process optimization

R. Schemmel, V. Krieger, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: 2020 21st International Conference on Thermal, Mechanical and Multi-Physics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems (EuroSimE), 2020



Atomization of Fluids with Ultrasound

P. Dunst, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, W.. Littmann, W. Sextro, in: Conference Proceedings - The 4th Conference on MicroFluidic Handling Systems (MFHS2019), 2019, pp. 140-143

In a variety of industrial applications, liquids are atomized to produce aerosols for further processing. Example applications are the coating of surfaces with paints, the application of ultra-thin adhesive layers and the atomization of fuels for the production of combustible dispersions. In this publication different atomizing principles (standing-wave, capillary-wave, vibrating-mesh) are examined and discussed. Using an optimized standing-wave system, tough liquids with viscosities of up to about 100 Pas could be successfully atomized.

Messung hochfrequenter In-Plane-Schwingungen mittels Laservibrometrie in räumlich eingeschränkten Umgebungen

O.E.C. Hagedorn, D. Pielsticker, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: 2. VDI-Fachtagung Schwingungen 2019, VDI Verlag GmbH · Düsseldorf 2019, 2019

Modellbasierte und experimentelle Charakterisierung von intensiven Ultraschall-Stehwellenfeldern für die Zerstäubung hochviskoser Flüssigkeiten

P. Dunst, T. Hemsel, P. Bornmann, W.. Littmann, W. Sextro, in: DAGA 2019, 2019

Für die Zerstäubung hochviskoser Flüssigkeiten werden neben Düsenzerstäubern vor allem UltraschallStehwellenzerstäuber angewendet [1]. Diese ermöglichen ohne weitere Maßnahmen zwar keine gerichtete Zerstäubung, benötigen jedoch im Gegensatz zu Düsenzerstäubern keine hohen Drücke und haben keine hohen Austrittsgeschwindigkeiten. Zur Erzeugung der Ultraschallwellen werden typischerweise piezoelektrische, mit Bolzen verschraubte LangevinWandler verwendet [1-4], die eine starke Schallabstrahlung bei einer elektrischen Eingangsleistung von bis zu einigen Kilowatt erzeugen können. Wie bei jedem anderen schwingenden System emittiert der Ultraschallwandler zunächst eine Wanderwelle. Mit einem Reflektor, der gegenüber der Sonotrode angeordnet ist, wird eine stehende Welle erzeugt. Im Resonanzabstand zwischen Reflektor und Wandler werden abgestrahlte und reflektierte Wellen so überlagert, dass höhere Schalldruckamplituden erzielt werden. Ein einfacher Ansatz zur Maximierung des Schallpegels im Stehwellenfeld ist die Erhöhung der Schwingungsamplituden des Wandlers, die jedoch zu Schäden oder zumindest zu einer Verringerung der Lebensdauer führen kann. Hohe Schalldrücke werden auch bei geringen Abständen zwischen Wandler und Reflektor erreicht. Das Volumen des Schallfeldes ist in diesem Fall jedoch für die meisten Prozesse zu klein. Ein weiterer Ansatz ist die Verwendung zweier entgegengesetzt angeordneter Wandler [5]. In diesem Fall erfordert jedoch die Erzeugung einer stehenden Welle eine genaue Abstimmung von Frequenz und Phase beider Wandler, was eine komplexe Steuerung erfordert. Ebenso ist es möglich, geometrische Randbedingungen des Stehwellensystems zu optimieren, sodass es zu optimaler Interferenz der Wellen kommt. Im Folgenden wird der Anschaulichkeit halber vereinfachend angenommen, dass der Wandler an seiner Sonotrodenoberfläche einzelne Schallstrahlen aussendet, die in Nähe des Wandlers nahezu parallel verlaufen und sich mit zunehmender Entfernung vom Wandler auffächern. Ein einfaches Stehwellensystem, bestehend aus ebener Sonotrode und ebenem Reflektor, erzeugt bei kleinem Abstand zwischen Sonotrode und Reflektor sehr hohe Schallpegel, da nahezu sämtliche ausgesandten Schallstrahlen in Richtung der Sonotrode reflektiert werden positive Interferenz entsteht. Erhöht man jedoch den Abstand zwischen Sonotrode und Reflektor, so nehmen die Verluste durch Schallstrahlen, die den Prozessraum verlassen, zu. Wie Abbildung 1 gezeigt, werden nur Schallstrahlen, die in etwa parallel zur Rotationsachse verlaufen, zum Wandler zurück reflektiert und tragen zum Stehwellenfeld bei. Die Strahlen haben zudem abhängig vom Abstrahlwinkel unterschiedliche Weglängen. Die Stehwellenbedingung ist demnach nur für Strahlen in der Nähe der Rotationsachse exakt erfüllt. Um dies zu vermeiden, müssen die Geometrien von Wandler und Reflektor optimiert werden. In den folgenden Abschnitten wird zunächst ein Optimierungsansatz vorgestellt. Mithilfe eines FiniteElemente-Modells werden die Auswirkungen einer optimierten Geometrie auf den maximalen Schalldruckpegel untersucht. Ergebnisse werden durch Messungen an einem experimentellen Aufbau eines Stehwellensystems validiert. Es wird gezeigt, wie sich die Optimierung der geometrischen Randbedingungen auf die Zerstäubung hochviskoser Flüssigkeiten auswirkt.

Using complex multi-dimensional vibration trajectories in ultrasonic bonding and welding

R. Schemmel, T. Hemsel, C. Dymel, M. Hunstig, M. Brökelmann, W. Sextro, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical (2019), 295, pp. 653 - 662

Ultrasonic joining is a common industrial process. In the electronics industry it is used to form electrical connections, including those of dissimilar materials. Multiple influencing factors in ultrasonic joining are known and extensively investigated; process parameters like ultrasonic power, bond force, and bonding frequency of the ultrasonic vibration are known to have a high impact on a reliable joining process and need to be adapted for each new application with different geometry or materials. This contribution is focused on increasing ultrasonic power transmitted to the interface and keeping mechanical stresses during ultrasonic bonding low by using a multi-dimensional ultrasonic transducer concept. Bonding results for a new designed connector pin in IGBT-modules achieved by multi- and one-dimensional bonding are discussed.


Vibration Assisted Dosing, Mixing and Transport of Dry Fine Powders

P. Dunst, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, W. Littmann, W. Sextro, ACTUATOR 2018; 16th International Conference on New Actuators (2018), pp. 142-145

The handling of fine powders is an important task in modern production processes. However, as fine powders strongly tend to adhesion and agglomeration, their processing with conventional methods is difficult or impossible. Especially when processing small amounts of highly sensitive fine powders, conventional methods reach their technical limits. In process steps such as dosing, transport, and especially mixing of fine powders new methods are required. Apart from the well-known method of manipulating powder properties by adding chemical additives, this contribution aims at improving the handling of dry fine powders by using vibrations at different frequencies. Modules are presented, which enable the continuous dosing, the homogeneous mixing and the transport of dry fine powders. Finally, these modules are combined for the production of a homogeneous mixture of two dry fine powders.

Vibration-Assisted Handling of Dry Fine Powders

P. Dunst, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, Actuators 2018, 7(2). (2018), pp. 1-11

Abstract:Since fine powders tend strongly to adhesion and agglomeration, their processing withconventional methods is difficult or impossible. Typically, in order to enable the handling of finepowders, chemicals are added to increase the flowability and reduce adhesion. This contributionshows that instead of additives also vibrations can be used to increase the flowability, to reduceadhesion and cohesion, and thus to enable or improve processes such as precision dosing, mixing,and transport of very fine powders. The methods for manipulating powder properties are describedin detail and prototypes for experimental studies are presented. It is shown that the handling of finepowders can be improved by using low-frequency, high-frequency or a combination of low- andhigh-frequency vibration.

Numerical and statistical investigation of weld formation in a novel two-dimensional copper-copper bonding process

C. Dymel, P. Eichwald, R. Schemmel, T. Hemsel, M. Brökelmann, M. Hunstig, W. Sextro, in: (Proceedings of 7th Electronics System-Integration Technology Conference, Dresden, Germany), 2018, pp. 1-6

State-of-the-art industrial compact high power electronic packages require copper-copper interconnections with larger cross sections made by ultrasonic bonding. In comparison to aluminium-copper, copper-copper interconnections require increased normal forces and ultrasonic power, which might lead to substrate damage due to increased mechanical stresses. One option to raise friction energy without increasing vibration amplitude between wire and substrate or bonding force is the use of two-dimensional vibration. The first part of this contribution reports on the development of a novel bonding system that executes two-dimensional vibrations of a tool-tip to bond a nail- like pin onto a copper substrate. Since intermetallic bonds only form properly when surfaces are clean, oxide free and activated, the geometries of tool-tip and pin were optimised using finite element analysis. To maximize the area of the bonded annulus the distribution of normal pressure was optimized by varying the convexity of the bottom side of the pin. Second, a statistical model obtained from an experimental parameter study shows the influence of different bonding parameters on the bond result. To find bonding parameters with the minimum number of tests, the experiments have been planned using a D-optimal experimental design approach.

Experimental investigations on the impact of bond process parameters in two-dimensional ultrasonic copper bonding

C. Dymel, R. Schemmel, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, M. Brökelmann, M. Hunstig, in: (Proceedings of 8th Electronics IEEE CPMT Symposium Japan (ICSJ 2018), Kyoto, Japan), 2018, pp. 41-44

Ultrasonic bonding and welding are common friction based approaches in the assembly of power electronics. Interconnections with cross-sections of 0.3 mm² up to 12 mm² made from copper are well suited in high power applications. For increasing friction energy, which is responsible for bond formation, a two-dimensional vibration approach is applied to newly developed interconnection pins. Using two-dimensional vibration for bonding requires identification of suitable bonding parameters. Even though simulation models of wire bonding processes exist, parameters for the two-dimensional pin-bonding process cannot be derived accurately yet. Within this contribution, a methodology and workflow for experimental studies identifying a suitable bond parameter space are presented. The results of a pre-study are used to set up an extensive statistical parameter study, which gives insights about the bond strength change due to bond process parameter variation. By evaluation of electrical data captured during bonding, errors biasing the resulting shear forces are identified. All data obtained during the experimental study is used to build a statistical regression model suitable for predicting shear forces. The accuracy of the regression model’s predictions is determined and the applicability to predict process parameters or validate simulation models is assessed. Finally, the influence of the tool trajectory on the bond formation is determined, comparing one dimensional, elliptic and circular trajectories.

Numerical and experimental investigations in ultrasonic heavy wire bonding

R. Schemmel, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: 6th European Conference on Computational Mechanics (ECCM 6), 2018, pp. 1-12

Ultrasonic wedge/wedge-wire bonding is used to connect electrical terminals of semiconductor modules in power electronics. The wire is clamped with a tool by a normal force and ultrasonic vibration is transmitted through the wire into the interface between wire and substrate. Due to frictional processes contaminations like oxide layers are removed from the contact zone and the surface roughness is reduced, thus the real contact area is increased. In the next step of bond formation, thermomechanical forces create micro-junctions between the wire and substrate and the bond strength increases. The bond parameters like the bond normal force, the ultrasonic vibration amplitude and the geometry of the clamping tool show a high influence on the strength and reliability of the wire bond and need to be investigated in detail. Therefore, in this contribution the dynamical behaviour of the ultrasonic system, the wire and the substrate are modeled in form of substructures, which are connected by the friction contacts between tool and wire and between wire and substrate. Approaches for modelling the time variant contact behaviour, the substrate dynamics, and the model order reduction for a time efficient simulation are described to simulate the full bonding process.


Analysis of pipe vibration in an ultrasonic powder transportationsystem

P. Dunst, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, elsevier (2017), Sensors and Actuators A 263, pp. 733-736

The transportation of dry fine powders is an emerging technologic task, as in biotechnology, pharmaceu-tical and coatings industry the particle sizes of processed powders get smaller and smaller. Fine powdersare primarily defined by the fact that adhesive and cohesive forces outweigh the weight forces, leadingto mostly unwanted agglomeration (clumping) and adhesion to surfaces. Thereby it gets more difficult touse conventional conveyor systems (e.g. pneumatic or vibratory conveyors) for transport. A rather newmethod for transporting these fine powders is based on ultrasonic vibrations, which are used to reducefriction between powder and substrate. Within this contribution an experimental set-up consisting of apipe, a solenoid actuator for axial vibration and an annular piezoelectric actuator for the high frequencyradial vibration of the pipe is described. Since amplitudes of the radial pipe vibration should be as large aspossible to get high effects of friction reduction, the pipe is excited to vibrate in resonance. To determinethe optimum excitation frequency and actuator position the vibration modes and resonance frequenciesof the pipe are calculated and measured. Results are in good accordance.

Estimation of Remaining Useful Lifetime of Piezoelectric Transducers Based on Self-Sensing

J.K. Kimotho, W. Sextro, T. Hemsel, in: IEEE Transactions on Reliability, 2017, pp. 1 - 10

Piezoelectric transducers are used in a wide range of applications. Reliability of these transducers is an important aspect in their application. Prognostics, which involve continuous monitoring of the health of technical systems and using this information to estimate the current health state and consequently predict the remaining useful lifetime (RUL), can be used to increase the reliability, safety, and availability of the transducers. This is achieved by utilizing the health state and RUL predictions to adaptively control the usage of the components or to schedule appropriate maintenance without interrupting operation. In this work, a prognostic approach utilizing self-sensing, where electric signals of a piezoelectric transducer are used as the condition monitoring data, is proposed. The approach involves training machine learning algorithms to model the degradation of the transducers through a health index and the use of the learned model to estimate the health index of similar transducers. The current health index is then used to estimate RUL of test components. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated using piezoelectric bimorphs and the results show that the method is accurate in predicting the health index and RUL.

MoRFUS: Mobile Reinigungseinheit für Förderketten basierend auf Ultraschall

R. Schemmel, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: 43. Deutsche Jahrestagung für Akustik, 2017, pp. 611-614

ln der industriellen Fertigung werden zum Transport von Bauteilen häufig Förderketten genutzt. Obwohl die Förderketten meist nicht direkt mit den Arbeitsmedien in Berührung kommen, werden sie indirekt durch vagabundierende Stäube und Pulver, die an der geölten Kette anhaften, im Laufe der Zeit stark verschmutzt. Ein derart im Betrieb verschmutztes Kettenglied ist in Abbildung 1 dargestellt. Um die Lebensdauer der Ketten zu erhöhen und das Herunterfallen von Schmutzpartikel auf die Produkte zu vermeiden, muss die Kette regelmäßig gereinigt werden. Ziel des hier beschriebenen Forschungsvorhabens ist die Entwicklung eines Systems, das in der Lage ist, ein einzelnes Kettenglied in unter 60 s mittels Ultraschall zu reinigen. In [1] wurde in ersten Versuchen nachgewiesen, dass Stabschwinger in Abhängigkeit des Sonotrodenabstands zum Reinigungsobjekt und der Ultraschallamplitude eine intensive Reinigungswirkung entfalten. Das Konzept der Reinigungsanlage sieht deshalb vor, im ersten Schritt die stark verschmutzten Kettenglieder durch ein hochintensives Kavitationsfeld von direkt eingetauchten Stabschwingern vorzureinigen und anschließend schwer zugängliche Be- reiche wie Hinterschneidungen oder Bohrungen mittels konventioneller Tauchschwinger von Verschmutzungen zu befreien. Für den Stabschwinger wird die sogenannte - Sonotrode untersucht; diese wird unter anderem auch in der Sonochemie verwendet. Ein wesentliches Merkmal der Sonotrode ist eine hohe Amplitudenübersetzung bei einer gleichzeitig großen Abstrahlfläche. Neben dem Entwurf mittels der L /2 -Synthese wird die Reinigungswirkung der Sonotrode in Abhängigkeit der Ultraschallamplitude und dem Abstand zum Reinigungsobjekt in einer Versuchsreihe untersucht. Zur genaueren Betrachtung der Reinigungs- mechanismen eines Stabschwingers werden abschließend Hochgeschwindigkeitsaufnahmen vorgestellt und analysieren.


Transportation of dry fine powders by coordinated friction manipulation

P. Dunst, W. Sextro, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, W. Littmann, in: PAMM Proc. Appl. Math. Mech. 16, 2016, pp. 635-636

The transportation of dry fine powders is an emerging technologic task, as in biotechnology, pharmaceutical or coatings industry particle sizes of processed powders are getting smaller and smaller. Fine powders are primarily defined by the fact that adhesive and cohesive forces outweigh the weight forces. This leads to mostly unwanted agglomeration (clumping) and adhesion to surfaces, what makes it more difficult to use conventional conveyor systems (e. g. pneumatic or vibratory conveyors) for transport. A rather new method for transporting these fine powders is based on ultrasonic vibrations, which are used to reduce friction and adhesion between powder and the substrate. One very effective set-up consists of a pipe, which vibrates harmoniously in axial direction at low frequency combined with a pulsed radial high frequency vibration. The high frequency vibration accelerates the particles perpendicular to the surface of the pipe, which in average leads to lower normal and thereby smaller friction force. With coordinated friction manipulation the powder acceleration can be varied so that the powder may be greatly accelerated and only slightly decelerated in each excitation period of the low frequency axial vibration of the pipe. The amount of powder flow is adjustable by vibration amplitudes, frequencies, and pulse rate, which makes the device versatile for comparable high volume and fine dosing using one setup. Within this contribution an experimental set-up consisting of a pipe, a solenoid actuator for axial vibration and a piezoelectric actuator for the radial high frequency vibration is described. An analytical model is shown, that simulates the powder velocity. Finally, simulation results are validated by experimental data for different driving parameters such as amplitude of low frequency vibration, pipe material and inclination angle.


Kavitationsdetektion mittels Self-Sensing-Ultraschallwandler

P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, G. Memoli, M. Hodnett, B. Zeqiri, tm - Technisches Messen (2015), 82(2), pp. 73-84

Eine Vielzahl von Prozessen in der Chemie und Verfahrenstechnik kann durch Ultraschall positiv beeinflusst werden. Oftmals ist ultraschallinduzierte Kavitation der Hauptwirkmechanismus für die positiven Effekte der Beschallung. Daher ist es notwendig die Kavitationsaktivität während des Prozesses zu quantifizieren um die Beschallung für den jeweiligen Prozess optimal gestalten und überwachen zu können. Eine Möglichkeit der prozessbegleitenden Kavitationsdetektion ist die Auswertung der akustischen Emissionen von oszillierenden und kollabierenden Kavitationsblasen mittels Drucksensoren in der Flüssigkeit. Raue Prozessrandbedingungen wie hohe Temperaturen oder aggressive Flüssigkeiten erschweren es jedoch geeignete Sensoren zu finden. Als Alternative wurde daher die Nutzbarkeit der Rückwirkung von Kavitationsereignissen auf das elektrische Eingansgssignal des Ultraschallwandlers zur Quantifizierung von Kavitation untersucht. Die experimentelle Analyse hat ergeben, dass das Einsetzen und in einigen Fällen auch die Art der Kavitation auf Basis der Rückwirkung auf das Stromsignal des Ultraschallwandlers bestimmt werden kann. Die Stärke der Kavitation war hingegen nicht aus den Stromsignalen abzuleiten.

Thick KNbO 3 films deposited by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method

R. Kudo, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, T. Morita, Acoustical Science and Technology (2015), 36(3), pp. 262-264



Improving the bond quality of copper wire bonds using a friction model approach

S. Althoff, J. Neuhaus, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), 2014 IEEE 64th, 2014, pp. 1549-1555

In order to increase mechanical strength, heat dissipation and ampacity and to decrease failure through fatigue fracture, wedge copper wire bonding is being introduced as a standard interconnection method for mass production. To achieve the same process stability when using copper wire instead of aluminum wire a profound understanding of the bonding process is needed. Due to the higher hardness of copper compared to aluminum wire it is more difficult to approach the surfaces of wire and substrate to a level where van der Waals forces are able to arise between atoms. Also, enough friction energy referred to the total contact area has to be generated to activate the surfaces. Therefore, a friction model is used to simulate the joining process. This model calculates the resulting energy of partial areas in the contact surface and provides information about the adhesion process of each area. The focus here is on the arising of micro joints in the contact area depending on the location in the contact and time. To validate the model, different touchdown forces are used to vary the initial contact areas of wire and substrate. Additionally, a piezoelectric tri-axial force sensor is built up to identify the known phases of pre-deforming, cleaning, adhering and diffusing for the real bonding process to map with the model. Test substrates as DBC and copper plate are used to show the different formations of a wedge bond connection due to hardness and reaction propensity. The experiments were done by using 500 $\mu$m copper wire and a standard V-groove tool.

Self-Sensing Ultrasound Transducer for Cavitation Detection

P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, G. Memoli, M. Hodnett, B. Zeqiri, in: 2014 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium Proceedings, 2014, pp. 663-666

Cavitation monitoring is desired to optimize the sonication for diverse sonochemical processes and to detect changes or malfunctions during operation. In situ cavitation measurements can be carried out by detection of the acoustic emissions of cavitation bubbles by sensors in the liquid. However, in harsh environments sensors might not be applicable. Thus, the impact of cavitation on the electrical signals of a piezoelectric transducer has been analyzed as alternative method to measure the threshold, strength and type of cavitation. The applicability has been tested in three different setups to evaluate the general- izability of extracted indicators. In all setups indicators for the cavitation thresholds could be derived from the current signal. In two setups features showed two thresholds that may be linked to the types of cavitation. However, only one feature derived from the current signal in one particular setup correlated to the strength of cavitation. Cavitation detection based on the current signal of the transducer is a useful method to detect cavitation in harsh environments and without perturbing the sound field. Once appli- cable indicators have been identified, they may easily be tracked during the process. However, for more detailed studies about the cavitation activity and its spatial distribution, measurements with in situ sensors are recommended.

Reliability analysis of ultrasonic power transducers

T. Hemsel, P. Bornmann, T. Morita, C. Sondermann-Wölke, W. Sextro, Archive of Applied Mechanics (2014), pp. 1-7


High-velocity operation of piezoelectric inertia motors: experimental validation

M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, Archive of Applied Mechanics (2014), pp. 1-9

Piezoelectric inertia motors use the inertia of a body to drive it by means of a friction contact in a series of small steps. It has been shown previously in theoretical investigations that higher velocities and smoother movements can be obtained if these steps do not contain phases of stiction (''stick-slip`` operation), but use sliding friction only (''slip-slip`` operation). One very promising driving option for such motors is the superposition of multiple sinusoidal signals or harmonics. In this contribution, the theoretical results are validated experimentally. In this context, a quick and reliable identification process for parameters describing the friction contact is proposed. Additionally, the force generation potential of inertia motors is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results confirm the theoretical result that for a given maximum frequency, a signal with a high fundamental frequency and consisting of two superposed sine waves leads to the highest velocity and the smoothest motion, while the maximum motor force is obtained with signals containing more harmonics. These results are of fundamental importance for the further development of high-velocity piezoelectric inertia motors.

Synthesis of lead-free piezoelectric powders by ultrasonic-assisted hydrothermal method and properties of sintered (K0.48Na0.52)NBO3 ceramics

G. Isobe, T. Maeda, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, T. Morita, Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on (2014), 61(2), pp. 225-230

(K,Na)NbO3 ceramics have attracted much attention as lead-free piezoelectric materials with high piezoelectric properties. High-quality (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics can be sintered using KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders synthesized by a hydrothermal method. In this study, to enhance the quality factor of the ceramics, high-power ultrasonic irradiation was employed during the hydrothermal method, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the resultant powders.


Increasing the power of piezoelectric energy harvesters by magnetic stiffening

W. Al-Ashtari, M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures (2013), 24(11), pp. 1332-1342

A piezoelectric cantilever beam with a tip mass at its free end is a common energy harvester configuration. This article introduces a new principle of designing such a harvester that increases the generated power without changing the resonance frequency of the harvester: the attraction force between two permanent magnets is used to add stiffness to the system. This magnetic stiffening counters the effect of the tip mass on the efficient operation frequency. Five set-ups incorporating piezoelectric bimorph cantilevers of the same type in different mechanical configurations are compared theoretically and experimentally to investigate the feasibility of this principle: theoretical and experimental results show that magnetically stiffened harvesters have important advantages over conventional set-ups with and without tip mass. They generate more power while only slightly increasing the deflection in the piezoelectric harvester and they can be tuned across a wide range of excitation frequencies.

Enhanced energy harvesting using multiple piezoelectric elements: Theory and experiments

W. Al-Ashtari, M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical (2013), 200, pp. 138 - 146

Power and bandwidth of piezoelectric harvesters can be increased by using multiple piezoelectric elements in one harvester. In this contribution, a novel energy harvesting cantilever array with magnetic tuning including three piezoelectric bimorphs is investigated theoretically and experimentally, with a good agreement between model and experiment. Other than harvester designs proposed before, this array is easy to manufacture and insensitive to manufacturing tolerances because its optimum operation frequency can be re-adjusted after fabrication. Using the superposition principle, the Butterworth-Van Dyke model and a mechanical lumped parameters model, the generated voltage and current are determined analytically. Formulas for calculating the power generated by array harvesters with an arbitrary number of piezoelectric elements connected in series or in parallel are derived. It is shown that optimum harvester design must take both the connected load and the operating frequency into account. Strategies for connecting multiple bimorphs to increase the maximum generated power and/or enhance the bandwidth compared to a single bimorph harvester are investigated. For bandwidth enhancement it is essential that individual rectifiers are used for the bimorphs. An example with three bimorphs shows that, depending on the chosen tuning strategy, the power is increased by about 340\% or the bandwidth is increased by about 500\%, compared to one single bimorph.

Characteristics of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters in Autonomous Systems

W. Al-Ashtari, M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: Proceedings of 10th International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications and 8th Energy Harvesting Workshop, Hannover, Germany, 14.-17.7.2013, 2013, pp. 159-161

A basic autonomous system powered by a piezoelectric harvester contains three components apart from the harvester: a fullwave rectifier, a reservoir capacitor and an electronic device performing the primary task of the system. In this contribution, a model describing the operation of such a system is derived. It is found that in steady-state operation, the piezoelectric harvester experiences two alternating load conditions due to the rectification process. These alternating load conditions can have a significant effect on the operation of the harvester and must be considered in the design of autonomous systems. The results also show that such an autonomous system works efficiently if it is connected to a high impedance load and excited by a frequency matching the anti-resonance frequency of the piezoelectric harvester.

A friction based approach for modeling wire bonding

S. Althoff, J. Neuhaus, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: IMAPS 2013, 46th International Symposium on Microelectronics, 2013

A model approach for wedge/wedge bonding copper wire is presented. The connection between wire and substrate is based on a variety of physical effects, but the dominant one is the friction based welding while applying ultrasound. Consequently, a friction model was used to investigate the welding process. This model is built up universal and can be used to describe the formation of micro welds in the time variant contact area between wire and substrate. Aim of the model is to identify the interactions between touchdown, bond normal force, ultrasonic power and bonding time. To do so, the contact area is discretized into partial areas where a Point Contact Model is applied. Based on this approach it is possible to simulate micro and macro slip inside the contact area between wire and substrate. The work done by friction force is a main criterion to define occurring micro joints which influence the subsequent welding.

Leistungs- und Bandbreitensteigerung von Energy-Harvesting-Generatoren für Energieautarke Systeme

M. Hunstig, W. Al-Ashtari, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: 9. Paderborner Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme, Heinz Nixdorf Institut, Universität Paderborn, 2013, pp. 359-372

High-Velocity Slip-Slip Operation of Piezoelectric Inertia Motors - Experimental Validation

M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: Proceedings of 10th International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications and 8th Energy Harvesting Workshop, 2013, pp. 16-18

It has been shown previously that ``slip-slip'' operation of piezoelectric inertia motors allows higher velocities and smoother movements than classic ``stick-slip'' operation. One very promising driving option is to use a superposition of multiple sinusoidal signals. In this contribution, previous theoretical results are validated experimentally. The results confirm the theoretical result that for a given maximum frequency, usually defined by the actuator characteristics, a signal with high fundamental frequency and consisting of two superposed sine waves leads to the highest velocity and the smoothest motion. This result is of fundamental importance for the further development of high-velocity piezoelectric inertia motors.

Modelling the friction contact in an inertia motor

M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures (2013), 24(11), pp. 1380-1391

Piezoelectric inertia motors, also known as stickslip drives or (smooth) impact drives, use the inertia of a body to drive it by a friction contact in small steps, in the majority of motors composed of a stick phase and a slip phase between the friction partners. For optimizing inertia motors, it is important to understand the friction contact correctly and to measure its properties appropriately. This contribution presents experimental set-ups for measuring the contact force, friction force and relative displacement in an actual inertia motor with a dry friction contact and numerical simulations of the motor operation. The motor uses a pre-stressed multilayer actuator with a displacement in the range of 20 $\mu$ m. It is shown that a previously postulated condition for the applicability of simple kinetic friction models is well fulfilled for the investigated motor. The friction contact in the motor is simulated using different kinetic friction models. The input for the friction models is the measured motion of the rod. The models qualitatively reproduce the measured motion but show quantitative deviations varying with frequency. These can be explained by vibrations of the driving rod that are experimentally investigated.

Stick-slip and slip-slip operation of piezoelectric inertia drives - Part II: Frequency-limited excitation

M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical (2013), 200, pp. 79 - 89

This contribution provides a systematic investigation and performance comparison of different modes of operation for piezoelectric inertia drives. The movement of these motors is classically assumed to consist of steps involving stiction and sliding, resulting in the term ``stick-slip drives''. In the first part of this contribution it has been found that using ideal driving signals, ``slip-slip'' operation without phases of stiction allows very high velocities, while the maximum velocity is limited principally in stick-slip operation. In this part it is shown that slip-slip operation is also suitable for use with real actuators, driven with frequency-limited versions of the ideal signals presented in part I. The motional performance of the motor as well as its wear and the required electric power are investigated for operation with different signals. It is found that for high velocity inertia motors it is recommendable to use actuators with large stroke and to drive them with a signal consisting of two harmonics at a high fundamental frequency, a result that is supported by similar setups implemented experimentally by other authors. Using Lanczos' \sigma factors to calculate the frequency-limited excitation signals instead of standard Fourier series additionally increases the motor performance significantly. The results help motor designers to choose the appropriate mode of operation and to optimise the motor parameters for their individual applications.

Stick-slip and slip-slip operation of piezoelectric inertia drives - Part I: Ideal Excitation.

M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical (2013), 200, pp. 90 - 100

Piezoelectric inertia motors, also known as ``stick--slip drives'', use the inertia of a body to drive it in small steps by means of a friction contact. While these steps are classically assumed to involve stiction and sliding, the motors can also operate in ``slip--slip'' mode without any phase of static friction. This contribution provides a systematic investigation and performance comparison of different stick--slip and slip--slip modes of operation. Different criteria for comparing the motional performance of inertia motors are defined: Steady state velocity, smoothness of motion, and start-up time. Using the example of a translational inertia motor excited by an ideal displacement signal, it is found that the maximum velocity reachable in stick--slip operation is limited principally, while continuous slip--slip operation allows very high velocities. For the investigated driving signals, the motor velocity is proportional to the square root of the actuator stroke. The motor performance with these ideal signals defines an upper boundary for the performance of real motors.

Selected Papers from the 9th International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators

T. Morita, T. Hemsel, T. Ijima, D.Y. Jeong, T. Kanda, J. Twiefel, E. Uzgur, M. Lallart. Selected Papers from the 9th International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators. 2013.

The 9th International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators (IWPMA 2012) was successfully held on 22–25 April 2012 in Hirosaki, Japan. The general chair was Prof. M.K. Kurosawa from the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan. In the past, Korea, Germany, Turkey, China, and USA have hosted the annual conference, but this was the first time for the annual IWPMA conference to be held in Japan. The IWPMA 2012 was organized as a joint symposium with JTTAS Smart Actuator/Sensor Study Committee and ICAT International Actuator Symposium. More than 150 people from the world (12 countries) participated and had fruitful discussions with 138 presentations including 11 invited talks. In addition to piezoelectric materials and piezoelectric actuators, the presentation topics were expanded to include solid-state actuators, energy harvesting, multifunctional materials, and other current important issues. It is our honor to pronounce that the “Sensors and Actuators A” journal has published this special issue on the IWPMA 2012 including the best 25 contributions. This issue covers the functional materials, such as piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials, and their applications. However, for the innovative devices, various ideas concerning materials, mechanisms, designs, fabrication process, and control-systems are also required to be organically combined. From the view of this concept, we believe the published 25 papers can excite the researcher's intellectual curiosity concerning these issues and can serve as the driving force for further breakthroughs. Please enjoy the latest research results selected by our editor team. Finally, we appreciate all participants in the IWPMA 2012 and the devoted reviewers for the publication. We hope that the papers in this special issue will open up the next researches, which will be presented in the future IWPMA conferences.

Study on optimizing ultrasonic irradiation period for thick polycrystalline PZT film by hydrothermal method

K. Ohta, G. Isobe, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, T. Morita, Ultrasonics (2013), 53(4), pp. 837 - 841

The hydrothermal method utilizes a solution-based chemical reaction to synthesize piezoelectric thin films and powders. This method has a number of advantages, such as low-temperature synthesis, and high purity and high quality of the product. In order to promote hydrothermal reactions, we developed an ultrasonic assisted hydrothermal method and confirmed that it produces dense and thick lead--zirconate--titanate (PZT) films. In the hydrothermal method, a crystal growth process follows the nucleation process. In this study, we verified that ultrasonic irradiation is effective for the nucleation process, and there is an optimum irradiation period to obtain thicker PZT films. With this optimization, a 9.2-$\mu$ m-thick PZT polycrystalline film was obtained in a single deposition process. For this film, ultrasonic irradiation was carried out from the beginning of the reaction for 18 h, followed by a 6 h deposition without ultrasonic irradiation. These results indicate that the ultrasonic irradiation mainly promotes the nucleation process.

Piezoelectric Properties of CuO-Doped (K,Na)NbO3 Lead-Free Ceramics Synthesized with Hydrothermal Powders

Y. Yokouchi, T. Maeda, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, T. Morita, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (2013), 52(7S)

We report the piezoelectric properties of CuO-doped hydrothermal (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics that can be applied as hard-type lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. To date, we have succeeded in synthesizing high-quality KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders by the hydrothermal method, which is based on an ionic reaction at high temperature (around 210 $\,^{\circ}$C) and pressure. Increasing both the piezoelectric constant d and the mechanical quality factor (Qm) is important for resonance-type piezoelectric devices, such as ultrasonic motors and transformers. CuO doping into hydrothermal (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics was examined to realize hard-type lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. By doping with 1.2 mol \% CuO, Qm was increased and the dielectric loss (tan δ) was decreased to 0.5\%. The grain size was also influenced by the amount of CuO doping, which indicates that Qm is related to the density. To achieve a higher Qm value, the grain size is required to be less than 5 µm; however, excessive CuO doping leads to anomalous grain growth. Optimal piezoelectric properties were obtained for 1.2 mol \% CuO-doped (K,Na)NbO3; k31 = 0.32, d31 = -44 pC/N, Qm (radial) = 959, and tan δ= 0.5\%. These characteristics showed that CuO doping with hydrothermal powders is effective for obtaining hard-type ceramics, and the mechanical quality factor is more than ten times higher than that of nondoped hydrothermal (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics. Therefore, compared with the conventional solid-state method, we could succeed in obtaining hard-type ceramics by a simple and short process.


Frequency tuning of piezoelectric energy harvesters by magnetic force

W. Al-Ashtari, M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, Smart Materials and Structures (2012), 21(3), pp. 035019

A piezoelectric energy harvester is an electromechanical device that converts ambient mechanical vibration into electric power. Most existing vibration energy harvesting devices operate effectively at a single frequency only, dictated by the design of the device. This frequency must match the frequency of the host structure vibration. However, real world structural vibrations rarely have a specific constant frequency. Therefore, piezoelectric harvesters that generate usable power across a range of exciting frequencies are required to make this technology commercially viable. Currently known harvester tuning techniques have many limitations, in particular they miss the ability to work during harvester operation and most often cannot perform a precise tuning. This paper describes the design and testing of a vibration energy harvester with tunable resonance frequency, wherein the tuning is accomplished by changing the attraction force between two permanent magnets by adjusting the distance between the magnets. This tuning technique allows the natural frequency to be manipulated before and during operation of the harvester. Furthermore the paper presents a physical description of the frequency tuning effect. The experimental results achieved with a piezoelectric bimorph fit the calculated results very well. The calculation and experimental results show that using this tuning technique the natural frequency of the harvester can be varied efficiently within a wide range: in the test setup, the natural frequency of the piezoelectric bimorph could be increased by more than 70\%.

Analytical determination of characteristic frequencies and equivalent circuit parameters of a piezoelectric bimorph

W. Al-Ashtari, M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures (2012), 23(1), pp. 15-23

Piezoelectric structures are nowadays used in many different applications. A better understanding of the influence of material properties and geometrical design on the performance of these structures helps to develop piezoelectric structures specifically designed for their application. Different equivalent circuits have been introduced in the literature to investigate the behaviour of piezoelectric transducers. The model parameters are usually determined from measurements covering the characteristic frequencies of the piezoelectric transducer. This article introduces an analytical technique for calculating the mechanical and electrical equivalent system parameters and characteristic frequencies based on material properties and geometry for a cantilever bimorph structure. The model is validated by measurements using a cantilever bimorph and fits the experimental results better than previous models. The model gives a full set of piezoelectric transducer parameters and is therefore well suited for further theoretical investigations of piezoelectric transducers for different applications. The results also show that even small manufacturing tolerances have a considerable effect on the system parameters and characteristic frequencies. This might lead to intolerable deviations, especially in dynamic applications and should be avoided by careful design and production.

Non-perturbing cavitation detection / monitoring in sonochemical reactors

P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, T. Maeda, T. Morita, in: Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), 2012 IEEE International, 2012, pp. 1141-1144

To optimize the ultrasound irradiation for cavitation based ultrasound applications like sonochemistry or ultrasound cleaning, the correlation between cavitation intensity and the resulting effect on the process is of interest. Furthermore, changing conditions like temperature and pressure result in varying acoustic properties of the liquid. That might necessitate an adaption of the ultrasound irradiation. To detect such changes during operation, process monitoring is desired. Labor intensive processes, that might be carried out for several hours, also require process monitoring to increase their reliability by detection of changes or malfunctions during operation. In some applications cavitation detection and monitoring can be achieved by the application of sensors in the sound field. Though the application of sensors is possible, this necessitates modifications on the system and the sensor might disturb the sound field. In other applications harsh, process conditions prohibit the application of sensors in the sound field. Therefore alternative techniques for cavitation detection and monitoring are desired. The applicability of an external microphone and a self-sensing ultrasound transducer for cavitation detection were experimentally investigated. Both methods were found to be suitable and easily applicable.

Synthesis of piezoelectric materials by ultrasonic assisted hydrothermal method

G. Isobe, R. Ageba, T. Maeda, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, T. Morita, in: AIP Conference Proceedings, AIP, 2012, pp. 569-572

Hydrothermal method enables to synthesize high quality piezoelectric materials. To shorten the reaction time and to get higher quality materials, we propose an ultrasonic irradiation to the solution during the hydrothermal method. We named it ultrasonic assisted hydrothermal method (UAHTM). We have synthesized lead-free piezoelectric material and PZT thin film and the effect of UAHTM have been confirmed. In this study, we tried to improve UAHTM. First, to generate powerful and stable ultrasonic irradiation at high temperature on UAHTM, we developed a new transducer using LiNbO3 single crystal. Second, to prevent contamination to the materials, A Teflon cover on the tip of transducer was attached.

Piezoelectric applications of hydrothermal lead-free (K0.48Na0.52)NbO3 ceramics

T. Maeda, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, T. Morita, in: Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), 2012 IEEE International, 2012, pp. 194-195

A hydrothermal method utilizes a crystallization process in the solution so that the pure and high-quality powders can be realized. Sintering from the hydrothermal KNbO3 and NaNbO3 powders, a high-dense lead-free piezoelectric (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics could be obtained (density: 98.8\%). Concerning about the g33 constant, high value as large as commercial PZT ceramics was measured. Therefore, the hydrothermal (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics is usable for the sensors and the energy harvesting devices. To demonstrate the (K,Na)NbO3 ceramics, a hydrophone sensor was fabricated and evaluated.

Piezoelectric Properties of Li-Doped (K0.48Na0.52)NbO3 Ceramics Synthesized Using Hydrothermally-Derived KNbO3 and NaNbO3 Fine Powders

T. Maeda, T. Hemsel, T. Morita, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (2012), 51, pp. 09MD08

[$Li_x(Na_0.52K_0.48)_1-x]NbO_3 (0 \leq x \leq 0.091)$ ceramics were synthesized using hydrothermal powders and the lithium doping content was controlled to optimize their piezoelectric properties. The raw KNbO$_3$ and NaNbO$_3$ powders were obtained separately by a hydrothermal method and LiNbO$_3$ powders were prepared by milling a commercial LiNbO$_3$ single crystal. These powders were mixed with ethanol at a molar ratio LiNbO$_3$: ($Na_0.52K_0.48$)NbO$_3 = x : 1-x$. The synthesized powders were sintered at 1060--1120 $\,^{\circ}$C for 2 h. We succeeded in obtaining highly dense [$Li_x(Na_0.52K_0.48)_1-x]NbO_3$ ceramics using hydrothermal powder. The X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the crystal phase changed from orthorhombic to tetragonal at around x = 0.06. At this morphotropic phase boundary (MPB), the c/a ratio changed from 1.016 to 1.024 and the highest piezoelectric constant was obtained with the chemical component of [$Li_x(Na_0.52K_0.48)_1-x]NbO_3$. The obtained piezoelectric properties were as follows: $k_33 = 0.51, \epsilon 33^T/ \epsilon _0 = 836$ , $c_33^E = 46$ GPa, $d_33 = 203$ pC/N, and $T_c = 482 $\,^{\circ}$C$.

Analysis of different operation modes for inertia motors

M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, ACTUATOR 2012 Conference Proceedings (2012), pp. 761-764

Piezoelectric inertia motors, also known as ``stick-slip-drives'', use the inertia of a body to drive it by means of a friction contact in small steps. While these steps normally involve stiction and sliding, the motors can also operate in ``slip-slip'' mode without any phase of static friction. In this contribution, a one degree of freedom model of an inertia motor driven by an ideal actuator is analysed. Start-up and constant velocity operation of the motor are investigated and appropriate quantities to compare ``stick-slip'' and ``slip-slip'' operation are determined. Different aspects such as velocity, uniformity of motion, load capacity, robustness, efficiency, and wear are considered. The analysis allows both modes to be applied advantageously in different applications and can widen the field of application of piezoelectric inertia motors. Motor designers are enabled to choose the appropriate mode of operation and the best drive parameters for their individual applications.


Multi-Objective Optimization of a Piezoelectric Sandwich Ultrasonic Transducer by Using Elitist Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm

T. Hemsel, B. Fu, Y. Jing, X. Fu, Key Engineering Materials (2011), 474 - 476, pp. 1808-1812

The multi-objective optimal design of a piezoelectric sandwich ultrasonic transducer is studied. The maximum vibration amplitude and the minimum electrical input power are considered as optimization objectives. Design variables involve continuous variables (dimensions of the transducer) and discrete variables (material types). Based on analytical models, the optimal design is formulated as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. The optimization problem is then solved by using the elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) and Pareto-optimal designs are obtained. The optimized results are analyzed and the preferred design is proposed. The optimization procedure presented in this contribution can be applied in multi-objective optimization problems of other piezoelectric transducers.

Multi-DOF cylindrical piezoelectric actuator with radial polarization

R. Lucinskis, D. Mazeika, T. Hemsel, R. Bansevicius, AIP Conference Proceedings (2011), 1433(1), pp. 693-696

The paper presents the results of numerical and experimental investigation of cylindrical piezoelectric actuator used for achieving independent three degrees of freedom oscillations of the contact point. The design of actuator based on a hollow piezoelectric cylinder mounted on a metal rod. The piezoceramic cylinder has a radial polarization and special configuration of the electrodes that cover inner and outer surface of the cylinder. The main advantage of actuator's design is that solid metallic rod operates as a part of inner electrode of the cylinder and a stator of actuator. The geometry of piezoelectric actuator was adopted to reach resonance of oscillations for the first longitudinal mode and the third flexural mode at same frequency. The actuator is designed to move positioned object through contact point which is located on the top of the rod. The optimal topology of electrodes was found to achieve longitudinal and flexural oscillations of the actuator in two perpendicular planes. Three degrees of freedom of the positioning object can be achieved and control of the system can be implemented by applying different excitation schemes and regimes. The numerical simulation and experimental study of piezoelectric actuator was performed. Impedance of actuator was analyzed under different excitation regimes. The results of numerical modeling and experimental study were compared. Recommendations for the further development of this type of actuator are given.

Improved Process for Hydrothermal Lead-Free Piezoelectric Powders and Performances of Sintered (K0.48Na0.52)NbO3 Ceramics

T. Maeda, T. Hemsel, T. Morita, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (2011), 50, pp. 07HC01

In this study, we report some improvements in a hydrothermal method for lead-free piezoelectric powders and the performance of the sintered (K$_{0.48}$Na$_{0.52}$)NbO$_{3}$ ceramics. To increase the obtained powder weight per source solution volume, the hydrothermal reaction conditions were modified. This improvement is important for mass production; however, it resulted in a larger particle size dispersion. Therefore, we examined to introduced the ball milling process that is useful for dense (K$_{0.48}$Na$_{0.52}$)NbO$_{3}$ ceramics. When a large amount of powder was obtained, it took a long time to eliminate the residual alkaline ions in the hydrothermal powders by a washing process. Therefore, a neutralization was conducted in the powder washing process. Using this powder, a solid solution of (K,Na)NbO$_{3}$ceramics was synthesized. The relative density was successfully increased. Concerning the electrical properties, the relative permittivity was improved, and the piezoelectric constant d$_{33}$ was also increased from 114 to 130 pC/N.

High temperature tolerant transducer for Ultrasonic Assisted Hydrothermal Method

G. Isobe, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, T. Morita, Proceedings of Symposium on Ultrasonic Electronics (2011), 32, pp. 19-20

Patent DE10201003395: Anordnung und Verfahren zur mehrdimensionalen Messung von Schwingungen eines Objekts.

W. Sextro, M. Hunstig, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel. Patent DE10201003395: Anordnung und Verfahren zur mehrdimensionalen Messung von Schwingungen eines Objekts. , Patent DE102010033951B4. 2011.

Es wird eine Anordnung zur mehrdimensionalen Messung von Schwingungen eines Objektes vorgeschlagen, umfassend ein Vibrometer und eine erste Ablenkeinheit, mittels welcher der Messstrahl des Vibrometers in wenigstens zwei erste Raumrichtungen ablenkbar ist, sowie wenigstens eine zweite Ablenkeinheit, mittels welcher der aus einer der wenigstens zwei ersten Raumrichtungen auf eine zweite Ablenkeinheit eintreffende Messstrahl derart ablenkbar ist, dass ein Messpunkt des Objekts aus einer ersten Raumrichtung und wenigstens einer zweiten Raumrichtung oder wenigstens zwei zweiten Raumrichtungen damit erfassbar ist. Bei dem zum Betrieb der Anordnung vorgesehenen Verfahren wird der Messstrahl eines Vibrometers in wenigstens zwei erste Raumrichtungen abgelenkt, woraufhin wenigstens ein Messstrahl einer ersten Raumrichtung ein zweites Mal derart abgelenkt wird, dass ein Messpunkt des Objekts aus einer ersten Raumrichtung und wenigstens einer zweiten Raumrichtung oder wenigstens zwei zweiten Raumrichtungen erfasst wird, insbesondere so dass die zu untersuchenden Bewegungskomponenten in den Messsignalen, welche entlang der ersten und zweiten Raumrichtungen gewonnen werden, enthalten sind. The arrangement has a first deflecting unit (3) for deflecting a measuring beam of a vibrometer (2) in spatial directions (4-6, 4-6). Second and third deflecting units (7, 8) deflect the beam arriving from one of the spatial directions such that a measuring point (9) of an object (1) is detectable with the beam from the spatial direction or the spatial directions. The first deflecting unit is designed as a scanning unit, where the measuring point is detected by the scanning unit. A measuring instrument measures focus quality and is connected to actuators for adjustment of the focus quality. An independent claim is also included for a method for multidimensional measurement of oscillations of an object.


Ultrasonically-assisted Hydrothermal Method for Ferroelectric Material Synthesis

R. Ageba, Y. Kadota, T. Maeda, N. Takiguchi, T. Morita, M. Ishikawa, P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, Journal of Korean Physical Society (2010), 57(4), pp. 918-923

The hydrothermal method enables the production of high-quality piezoelectric materials. In this study, we propose to irradiate the reaction solutions with ultrasonic power during the hydrothermal method to obtain a shorter reaction time and a smooth film surface. A high-pressure reaction container for the ultrasonic transducer was newly developed, and the ultrasonically-assisted hydrothermal method was examined by using this container. The effect of ultrasonic assist on the synthesis of lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin films and (K,Na)NbO$_{3}$ powders was verified. Thicker PZT film, thickness around 10 ${\mu}$m, could be obtained in one process, and (K,Na)NbO$_{3}$ powder was synthesized in half the previous reaction time.

Ultrasonic Transducer for the Hydrothermal Method

P. Bornmann, T. Hemsel, W. Littmann, R. Ageba, Y. Kadota, T. Morita, Journal of Korean Physical Society (2010), 57(4), pp. 1122

Direct ultrasound irradiation is advantageous to increase the efficiency of the hydrothermal method which can be used for the production of piezoelectric thin films and lead free piezoelectric ceramics. To apply ultrasound directly to the process transducer prototypes were developed regarding the boundary conditions of the hydrothermal method. LiNbO$_{3}$ and PIC 181 were proven as feasible materials for high temperature resistant transducers ($\geq 200^\circ C$). Resistance of the transducers horn against the corrosive mineralizer was achieved by using Hastelloy C-22. The efficiency of the ultrasound assisted hydrothermal method depends on the generated sound field. Impedance and sound field measurements have shown that the sound field depends on the filling level and the position and design of the transducer.

Modeling of Piezoelectric Langevin Transducers by Using Mixed Transfer Matrix Methods

B. Fu, C. Li, J. Zhang, Z. Huang, T. Hemsel, Journal of Korean Physical Society (2010), 57(4), pp. 929

In the modeling of piezoelectric Langevin transducers using usual transfer matrix methods, some simplifications have been adopted. This leads to reduction of the model quality. A mixed transfer matrix method is employed in the modeling of Langevin transducers, where the pre-stressed bolt is modeled as a separate four-pole element, which is connected to other elements in parallel. Based on the mixed transfer matrix method, the four (six)-pole element description of the piezoelectric Langevin transducer is built up and the total transfer matrix relation is derived. The resonance frequencies of the transducer are calculated and then measured using the impedance analyzer (HP4192). Experimental result shows that the mixed transfer matrix method has better modeling quality than the usual transfer matrix method for the vibration analysis of piezoelectric Langevin transducers.

Various Aspects of the Placement of a Piezoelectric Material in Composite Actuators, Motors, and Transducers

T. Hemsel, E.G. Lierk, W. Littmann, T. Morita, Journal of Korean Physical Society (2010), 57(4), pp. 933-937

Piezoelectric materials find wide application in technical systems. Most often, a combination of piezoelectric and other materials is advantageous. The position and the amount of the piezoelectric material within the overall system depends on various aspects like maximum mechanical output to the load, maximum electromechanical efficiency of the system, maximum utilization of the piezoelectric material, minimum self-heating of the piezoelectric material, and controllability of the system, which might be key aspects for the optimisation of the system design. For a composite longitudinal vibrator (bolted Langevin transducer), which is a base for many technical applications, this contribution shows in detail, how above mentioned aspects depend on the position and volume of the piezoelectric material related to the mode shape.

Drive Signals for Maximizing the Velocity of Piezoelectric Inertia Motors

M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, Journal of Korean Physical Society (2010), 57(4), pp. 938-941

Piezoelectric inertia motors have a simple construction and are controlled by a single driving signal. This allows for miniaturization and low cost production. One of the main questions to be answered during the design process of a piezoelectric inertia motor is which electrical excitation signal yields optimum motor characteristics. Three signals and their variants are widely used in literature: sawtooth, parabolic and cycloidic signals. It can be shown that neither of these can drive the motor at its maximum possible velocity in non-resonant operation. Within this paper we propose to use a rigid body model of a simple inertia motor to predict the motor characteristics depending on the movement pattern of the driving element. Advantages and disadvantages of three different drive signals that maximize the motor velocity are discussed.

Parameter Identification and Model Validation for the Piezoelectric Actuator in an Inertia Motor

M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, Journal of Korean Physical Society (2010), 57(4), pp. 952-954

Piezoelectric inertia motors make use of the inertia of a slider to drive the slider by friction contact in a series of small steps which are generally composed of a stick phase and a slip phase. If the best electrical drive signal for the piezoelectric actuator in an inertia motor is to be determined, its dynamical behaviour must be known. A classic dynamic lumped parameter model for piezoelectric actuators is valid only in resonance and, therefore, is not suitable for modelling the actuator in an inertia motor. A reduced dynamic model is used instead. Its parameters are identified using a step response measurement. This model is used to predict the movement of the actuator in response to a velocity-optimized signal introduced in a separate contribution. Results show that the model cannot represent the dynamical characteristics of the actuator completely. For determining voltage signals that let piezoelectric actuators follow a calculated movement pattern exactly, the model can, therefore, only be used with limitations.

Anregungskonzepte und Modellierung piezoelektrischer Trägheitsmotoren

M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: 7. Paderborner Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme, Heinz Nixdorf Institut, Universität Paderborn, 2010, pp. 129-141

Piezoelektrische Trägheitsmotoren nutzen die Trägheit einer bewegten Masse, um diese in kleinen Schritten durch abwechselnde Haft- und Gleitphasen voranzutreiben. Eine Kernfrage bei der Entwicklung eines piezoelektrischen Trägheitsmotors ist, welches elektrische Ansteuersignal für das gewünschte Motorverhalten optimal ist. Das elektrische Signal führt zu einer Bewegung des piezoelektrischen Aktors und damit der Antriebsstange, die den reibschlüssigen Vortrieb bewirkt. Entsprechend wird diese Fragestellung in zwei Teilen untersucht: Anhand eines Starrkörpermodells werden zunächst Bewegungsverläufe für die Antriebsstange ermittelt, mit denen die maximale Geschwindigkeit erreicht wird. Dabei werden drei Antriebsmodi identifiziert. Mit allen kann eine höhere Geschwindigkeit als mit der heute häufig verwendeten Sägezahnanregung erreicht werden. Anschließend wird ein einfaches dynamisches Modell eines piezoelektrischen Aktors genutzt, um die notwendigen elektrischen Ansteuersignale für die verschiedenen Antriebsmodi zu bestimmen. Es zeigt sich, dass das gewählte einfache Modell hierzu nur bedingt geeignet ist.

Improving the Performance of Piezoelectric Inertia Motors

M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, in: ACTUATOR 2010 Conference Proceedings, 2010, pp. 657-661

A model based design approach for improved piezoelectric inertia motors is presented. Three velocityoptimized movement patterns for the driving body have been derived. The influence of the motor parameters and the process of designing an application specific motor with maximum velocity are shown. A simple dynamic model of the piezoelectric actuator is used to calculate the voltage signal for achieving the desired movement pattern. Observed distortions of the optimum pattern, their influence on the motion of the driven body and different methods to reduce them are discussed.

Konzeption und Aufbau eines Langzeitforschungsstandes zur lichttechnischen Charakterisierung von organischen Leuchtdioden (OLEDs)

V. Kraft , C. Bauch, M. Nückel, T. Hemsel, in: 19. Gemeinschaftstagung LICHT 2010, 2010

Zur Theorie der piezoelektrischen Ultraschallverbundschwinger mit praktischen Schlussfolgerungen für den Entwicklungsingenieur

E. Lierke, W. Littmann, T. Hemsel, Veröffentlichung der Universität Paderborn (2010)

Dieser Beitrag fasst die bekannten analytischen Berechnungsmethoden für piezoelektrische Ultraschallverbundschwinger zusammen und gibt anhand typischer Beispiele Anleitungen zur Lösung theoretischer und technischer Fragen bei deren Entwicklung. Zunächst werden die passiven, in der Regel metallischen Komponenten von Verbundschwingern als Stab- oder Plattensysteme mit homogen verteilten Feder-, Masse und Dämpfungseigenschaften beschrieben. Hier breitet sich die Schwingungsenergie in Form stehender und fortschreitender Wellen zum akustischen Verbraucher hin aus. Es folgt eine gleichwertige und schaltungstreue Darstellung durch elektrische oder mechanische Vierpole, die für den Entwicklungsingenieur leichter zu handhaben sind und in Netzwerken direkt mit Masons Ersatzschaltung des piezoelektrischen Wandlers gekoppelt werden können. Danach werden die wichtigsten, messtechnisch zugänglichen Parameter anhand eines in Resonanznähe zulässigen Ersatzmodells mit konzentrierten elektrischen bzw. mechanischen Komponenten definiert. Als Schwerpunkt wird anschließend deren analytische Berechnung und messtechnische Verifizierung an typischen Beispielen demonstriert. Es folgen wichtige technische Informationen über Frequenzkorrekturen, Schallgeschwindigkeitsdispersion, Leistungs- und Belastbarkeitsgrenzen der Komponenten und andere wertvolle praktische Hinweise.

The experimental research of piezoelectric actuator with two vectors of polarization direction

R. Lucinskis, D. Mazeika, T. Hemsel, R. Bansevicius, MECHANIKA (2010)

Hydrothermal (K1-xNax)NbO3 Lead-free Piezoelectric Ceramics

T. Maeda, N. Takiguchi, T. Morita, M. Ishikawa, T. Hemsel, Journal of Korean Physical Society (2010), 57(4), pp. 924-928

As a lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, (K,Na)NbO$_{3}$ is a promising material because of its good piezoelectric properties. In this study, (K$_{1-x}$Na$_{x}$)NbO$_{3}$ ceramics were synthesized from a KNbO$_{3}$ and NaNbO$_{3}$ mixture powder prepared by the hydrothermal reaction. The hydrothermal reaction enables the production of high quality powder for the ceramics fabrication process. To obtain (K$_{1-x}$Na$_{x}$)NbO$_{3}$ ceramics, these two powders KNbO$_{3}$ and NaNbO$_{3}$ were mixed and then sintered together. X-Ray diffraction analysis revealed that the solid solution ceramics (K$_{1-x}$Na$_{x}$)NbO$_{3}$ was produced by the sintering process. The K/Na ratio in (K$_{1-x}$Na$_{x}$)NbO$_{3}$ ceramics was optimized for the best piezoelectric properties. The optimized forms was (K$_{0.48}$Na$_{0.52}$)NbO$_{3}$, which showed the following piezoelectric properties; k$_{33}$=0.56, d$_{33}$=114pC/N. In addition, the ferroelectric properties, P$_{r}$=7.72mC/cm$^{2}$, E$_{c}$=857V/mm, and the Curie temperature T$_{c}$=420$_{o}$C were also measured.

(K,Na)NbO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics synthesized from hydrothermal powders

T. Maeda, N. Takiguchi, T. Morita, M. Ishikawa, T. Hemsel, Materials Letters (2010), 64(2), pp. 125-128

Among various lead-free piezoelectric materials, (K,Na)NbO$_{3}$ is a very promising candidate. In this study, (K,Na)NbO$_{3}$ ceramics were sintered from mixed (K,Na)NbO$_{3}$ and NaNbO$_{3}$ powders prepared by hydrothermal reaction. These two powders were mixed with distilled water in a KNbO$_{3}$/NaNbO$_{3}$ molar ratio of 1. After sintering the mixed powder, the solid solution of (Na,K)NbO$_{3}$ ceramics was obtained. The electrical properties such as the electromechanical coupling factors k$_{p}$ and k$_{33}$, the mechanical quality factor, Q$_{m}$, and the piezoelectric constant d$_{33}$ of the sintered (K,Na)NbO$_{3}$ ceramics were 0.32, 0.48, 71 (radial mode), 118 ((33)mode), and 107 pC/N, respectively.

Guideline for the dependability-oriented design of self-optimizing systems

C. Sondermann-Wölke, T. Hemsel, W. Sextro, J. Gausemeier, S. Pook, in: Industrial Informatics (INDIN), 2010 8th IEEE International Conference on, 2010, pp. 739 -744

Self-optimizing systems are able to adapt their behavior autonomously according to their current self-determined objectives. Unforeseen influences could lead to dependability-critical behavior of the system. Methods are required which secure self-optimizing systems during operation. These methods to increase the dependability of the system should already be taken into consideration in the design process. This paper presents a guideline for the dependability-oriented design of self-optimizing systems, which integrates established classical methods like failure mode and effects analysis as well as methods based on self-optimization. On the one hand self-optimization is used to increase the dependability of the system by integrating objectives like safety, availability, and reliability to the objectives of the system. On the other hand methods are required to ensure the self-optimization itself. As basis for this guideline serves the principle solution of the system. The six phases of the guideline extend the design process and lead to an enhanced principle solution. Additionally, the guideline illustrates phases to implement and validate the self-optimizing system. The proposed guideline is applied to an innovative rail-bound vehicle, called RailCab, which is equipped with self-optimizing function modules.


Verlässlichkeit im aktiven selbstoptimierenden Spurführungsmodul eines schienengebundenen Fahrzeugs

C. Sondermann-Wölke, J. Geisler, M. Hirsch, T. Hemsel, 6. Paderborner Workshop: "Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme" (2009), Band 250, pp. 231-243

Verlässlichkeit im aktiven selbstoptimierenden Spurführungsmodul eines schienengebundenen Fahrzeugs

C. Sondermann-Wölke, J. Geisler, M. Hirsch, T. Hemsel, 6. Paderborner Workshop: "Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme" (2009), Band 250, pp. 231-243

Modellbasierte Entwicklung piezoelektrischer Trägheitsmotoren

M. Hunstig, T. Hemsel, in: 6. Paderborner Workshop Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme, Heinz Nixdorf Institut, Universität Paderborn, 2009, pp. 85-96

Die Entwicklung piezoelektrischer Tr{\"a}gheitsmotoren basiert derzeit auf Erfahrungswissen und Prototypenbau. Es existiert kein allgemeines Modell und keine Methodik f{\"u}r die systematische Entwicklung dieser Motoren. In diesem Beitrag stellen wir einen Ansatz zur Entwicklung einer solchen Methodik und den von uns aufgebauten Versuchsmotor vor. Der Motor ist modular aufgebaut; er besteht im Wesentlichen aus einer piezoelektrischen Antriebseinheit, einem Antriebsstab und dem zu bewegenden Schlitten. Eine wesentliche Aufgabe bei der modellbasierten Entwicklung von Tr{\"a}gheitsmotoren ist die hinreichende Beschreibung des dynamischen Verhaltens der Antriebseinheit. Um ein geeignetes Modell zu finden, bzw. um nachzuweisen, dass einfache parametrische Modelle gen{\"u}gen, wird die Antriebseinheit des Motors detailliert untersucht. Es zeigt sich, dass der derzeitige Aufbau eine Reihe von Nachteilen aufweist, die durch eine teilweise Neukonstruktion der Antriebseinheit beseitigt oder zumindest entsch{\"a}rft werden k{\"o}nnen.

Verlässlichkeit im aktiven selbstoptimierenden Spurführungsmodul eines schienengebundenen Fahrzeugs

C. Sondermann-Wölke, J. Geisler, M. Hirsch, T. Hemsel, in: Entwurf mechatronischer Systeme, 2009, pp. 231 - 242

Die Integration von Selbstoptimierung in mechatronische Systeme beinhaltet sowohl Risiken als auch Potenziale für die Verlässlichkeit. Die Risiken entstehen durch die Selbstoptimierung in den komplexen Systemen, da das Systemverhalten nur begrenzt im Voraus vorhersehbar ist. Daher wurde innerhalb des Sonderforschungsbereichs 614 ''Selbstoptimierende Systeme des Maschinenbaus" ein mehrstufiges Verlässlichkeitskonzept entworfen, welches das Ziel Verlässlichkeit stärker im Zielsystem verankert. In diesem Beitrag wird zum einen das erarbeitete Verlässlichkeitskonzept und zum anderen die Anwendung dieses Konzepts innerhalb des aktiven Spurführungsmoduls eines schienengebundenen Fahrzeugs vorgestellt. Um Programmierfehler auszuschließen wurde das Verlässlichkeitskonzept modelliert und über Model Checking verifiziert. Anhand von Simulationsergebnissen wird gezeigt, wie durch das mehrstufige Verlässlichkeitskonzept auf einen Ausfall eines Wirbelstromsensors des aktiven Spurführungsmoduls reagiert werden kann.

Menschliche Unzuverlässigkeit als Grundlage für den Entwurf von Kollisionsvermeidungssystemen.

C. Sondermann-Wölke, T. Hesse, T. Sattel, T. Hemsel, in: 24. Tagung Technische Zuverlässigkeit (TTZ 2009) - Entwicklung und Betrieb zuverlässiger Produkte, Leonberg, 2009, pp. 335 - 340


A simple pre-stress estimating method of langevin transducers

F. Bo, L. Ting, T. Hemsel, in: Piezoelectricity, Acoustic Waves, and Device Applications, 2008. SPAWDA 2008. Symposium on, 2008, pp. 324-327

A simple pre-stress estimate method of Langevin transducers is studied. The measurement setup consists of a capacitor, an impedance converter and a voltmeter. Based on the piezoelectric equation and the basic circuit theory, the mathematical expression between the pre-stress and the voltage across the capacitor is derived. The pre-stress level can then be calculated out of the measurement of the capacitor voltage. In order to evaluate the precision of this method, a force washer is used to measure the pre-stress of the Langevin transducer. The result shows the pre-stress level obtained from this method is 30-40\% higher than the pre-stress level measured by the force washer. This method is simple and can be used to estimate the pre-stress of various Langevin transducers. The precision of this method can be raised if d33 is identified under different pre-stress levels.

Local Ultrasonic Hyperthermia and Thermo-ablation: A Description and Theoretical Evaluation of Two Alternative Concepts for the Heat Therapy of Tumours

E. Lierke, T. Hemsel, Acta Acustica united with Acustica (2008), 94(3), pp. 369-381

Ultrasonic hyperthermia and thermo-ablation are two promising alternatives for local overheating of deep-seated human tumours. After a short characterisation of the two techniques and the identification of the main parameters, results of an analytical theory of local heat up, cooling, and heat diffusion are presented. The theory is based on a spherical model for hyperthermia with a critical thermal dose and on a cylinder-symmetrical model for thermo-ablation with a critical temperature threshold for thermal toxicity and cell death through coagulative necrosis. Two representative hard ware concepts are discussed. The hyperthermia applicator consists of a MHz transducer, which rotates concentrically in a water filled capsule with acoustically transparent window, and radiates collimated or focussed ultrasound under 45$\,^{\circ}$ into a concentric target area of nearly spherical symmetry. The applicator for thermo-ablation is a MHz transducer which radiates high intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) into "cigar shaped" target areas at the focal zone. Typical therapy diagrams for both techniques are presented. They show therapeutic target volumes as functions of the therapy time with the peak temperature or the radiated acoustic power as parameters. These diagrams are discussed under consideration of power requirement, maximal sound intensity, and power efficiency at close to optimized frequency conditions.

Verlässlichkeitorientierte Technologiebewertung innovativer Aktortechnologien am Beispiel von Formgedächtnislegierungen

T. Müller, F. Schiedeck, T. Hemsel, in: 2. Tagung des DVM -- Arbeitskreis Zuverlässigkeit mechatronischer und adaptronischer Systeme: Absicherung der Systemzuverlässigkeit, Koblenz, 2008

EN: Although the use of new actuator technologies is quite enthusiastic, the realization of innovative systems based on these principles fails because of doubts in dependability. Until now, new working principles for actuators have not been systematically investigated in the means of dependability. Therefore we developed a proceeding for a dependability-oriented evaluation of technologies. This is shown in the case of shape memory alloy actuators. DE: Die Realisierung von Systemen mittels innovativer Aktortechnologien scheitert oftmals an der Skepsis gegenüber der Verlässlichkeit (Vertrauen in die zuverlässige und sichere Funktionalität der Technologie). Diese liegt darin begründet, dass neue Aktortechnologien bzw. die Integration von innovativen physikalischen Wirkprinzipen innerhalb neuer Aktorkonzepte bisher noch nicht systematisch im Kontext der Verlässlichkeit untersucht werden. Daher haben wir ein Vorgehen zur verlässlichkeitsorientierten Technologiebewertung entwickelt. Neben der detaillierten Darstellung des Vorgehensmodells wird es exemplarisch anhand von Formgedächtnislegierungen zur Entwicklung innovativer Antriebslösungen angewendet.

Driving concepts for bundled ultrasonic linear motors

M. Mracek, T. Hemsel, T. Sattel, P. Vasiljev, J. Wallaschek, Journal of Electroceramics (2008), 20(3-4), pp. 153-158

Several positioning tasks demand translatory drive instead of rotary motion. To achieve drives that are capable, e.g., to drive the sunroof of a car or to lift a car's window, multiple miniaturized motors can be combined. But in this case many other questions arise: The electromechanical behavior of the individual motors differs slightly, the motor characteristics are strongly dependent on the driving parameters and the driven load, many applications need some extra power for special cases like overcoming higher forces periodically. Thus, the bundle of motors has to act well-organized and at last controlled to get an optimized drive that is not oversized and costly.

Tactile tissue characterisation by piezoelectric systems

R. Stroop, D.O. Uribe, M.O. Martinez, M. Brökelmann, T. Hemsel, J. Wallaschek, Journal of Electroceramics (2008), 20(3-4), pp. 237-241

For devices having non-linear contact, load plays a fundamental role. Variations in the characteristics of the load cause change in eigenfrequency and amplitude of the vibration. In most technical applications, this unwanted behaviour is cancelled by the use of control algorithms. However, multiple applications, like bond quality monitoring or chemical and pressure sensors, have found that the load may be characterised by interpreting the change in characteristics of a resonant vibrating device used as a sensor. Surgical resection of tumours is a very difficult task. After localising the tumour by the use of imaging techniques, the resection demands the surgeon to decide where and what to resect based on visual and tactile differentiation of tumour and healthy tissue. Exactness of this process could be enhanced if we can provide the surgeon with a device capable of evaluating mechanical characteristics of the tissue much more accurately than the surgeon himself can do. As the mechanical characteristics of tumour and healthy tissue differ but slightly, the task is to design a system with high sensitivity. Therefore, we have developed a resonant actuator-sensor that allows the differentiation among distinct media that have similar mechanical characteristics to tumour and healthy tissue using a piezoelectric bimorph. The design is based on the detection and evaluation of frequency shift and amplitude variation of the fundamental and higher harmonics using one layer for the resonant excitation of vibration and the other one as the sensing element.

Fundamental experiments as benchmark problems for modeling ultrasonic micro-impact processes

J. Twiefel, C. Potthast, M. Mracek, T. Hemsel, T. Sattel, J. Wallaschek, Journal of Electroceramics (2008), 20(3-4), pp. 209-214

Many ultrasonic processes are based on the mechanical contact of oscillating parts. Within ultrasonic machining (drilling, milling, grinding) micro impacts lead to abrasion at the processed workpiece and hopefully do not damage the tool. In ultrasonic motors ideally neither part gets worn. Thus the appropriate design of contact partners as well as their kinematics is a substantial task during the development of such devices. A first step to optimize contact mechanics is to understand their behavior and dependencies on parameter variations, such as vibration amplitude and pre-stress of the impacting parts. For a detailed understanding models validated with convincing experimental data from measurements are absolutely essential. This paper focuses on simple vibro-impact experiments which can be used as benchmark data for future models. The setup of the experiment and first experimental investigations are described in detail.

Development of a biomedical tissue differentiation system using piezoelectric actuators

D.O. Uribe, R. Stroop, T. Hemsel, J. Wallaschek, in: Frequency Control Symposium, 2008 IEEE International, 2008, pp. 91-94

In neurosurgery, delineation of tumor boundaries during resection of brain tumors is of substantial relevance. During operation distinction between tumor and healthy tissue rely on the abilities of the surgeon based on visual and tactile differentiation. In this paper a high sensitivity actuator-sensor system using a piezoelectric bimorph is presented. Frequency shift and transfer function of the bimorphpsilas voltages are detected and evaluated. Sensorpsilas sensitivity is evaluated using two frequency controls strategies: A phase-locked loop (PLL) and a self-oscillating circuit. Results of measurements conducted on gel-phantoms are presented and discussed.

Patent EP2156480: Piezoelektrische Antriebsvorrichtung / Piezoelectric Drive Unit

V. Rischmueller, J. Wallaschek, P. Froehlich, W. Haussecker, V. Rieger, J. Twiefel, D. Guenther, T. Hemsel. Patent EP2156480: Piezoelektrische Antriebsvorrichtung / Piezoelectric Drive Unit, Patent EP000002156480B1. 2008.


Non-destructive ultrasonic test of orange dehydration

F. Camarena Gandia, T. Hemsel, V. Espinosa, J. Twiefel, M. Ardid, J. Martinez-Mora, J.B. Gandia, in: Proceedings of 19th international congress on Acoustics, Madrid, 2007

Penetration tests (Magness-Taylor, force/deformation, Kramer multiblade shear) applied directly over the peel of the fruit are the most acceptable methods for measuring firmness and turgidity of fruits and vegetables [1, 2]. To replace these destructive and mechanical penetration methods by non-destructive ultrasonic measurements implies a great advance in order to obtain fast studies about the state of the fruit at the time of harvest, during storage, and in the distribution points. Moreover, there are other advantages since this technique can be fast, non-destructive, fully automated, and performed on-line [1]. Within this context, the objective of this study was to examine the relationship between physico-mechanical characteristics (oil-gland break stress, thickness and dehydration) and ultrasonic characteristics in the ``Salustiana'' orange peel during the complete dehydration process of the orange at ambient conditions. After a description of the measurement system [3], the fruit selection procedure and the measurement protocol, we analyze the results of the change of physico-mechanical and ultrasonic properties in the orange peel and their change with storage time.

Resonant vibrating sensors for tactile tissue differentiation

T. Hemsel, R. Stroop, D. Oliva Uribe, J. Wallaschek, Journal of Sound and Vibration (2007), 308, pp. 441 - 446

Surgical resection of brain tumours is a difficult task. To enhance surgery results, a tactile sensor is wanted that gives better resolution and sensitivity than the human tactile sense. The characteristics of resonant vibrating piezoelectric elements change with varying load. This allows for calculation of mechanical load parameters by measuring electrical quantities. Different setups of piezoelectric sensors have been used to investigate soft materials. Finally, a piezoelectric bimorph sensor gave good results for distinguishing tissue mimicking gel-phantoms with different gelatine concentrations.

Perspectives of Tumour Therapy by Local Ultrasonic Hyperthermia and Thermal Ablation

E. Lierke, T. Hemsel, in: Proceedings of 19th international congress on Acoustics, Madrid, 2007

Fundamental Study on A Thickness-Shear Transformer using X-Cut Lithium Niobate

T. Shigematsu , T. Morita, T. Hemsel, Proceedings of Symposium on Ultrasonic Electronics (2007), 28, pp. 439 - 440


Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators

J. Wallaschek, T. Hemsel, M. Mracek, Verlagsschriftenreihe des Heinz Nixdorf Instituts, Paderborn, 2006

Design and Construction of a 3D-Scanning-Laservibrometer

C. Becker, S. Wedman, T. Hemsel, in: Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators, 2006, pp. 481

Piezoelectric transducer design via multiobjective optimization

B. Fu, T. Hemsel, J. Wallaschek, Ultrasonics (2006), 44, Supplement, pp. e747 - e752

The design of piezoelectric transducers is usually based on single-objective optimization only. In most practical applications of piezoelectric transducers, however, there exist multiple design objectives that often are contradictory to each other by their very nature. It is impossible to find a solution at which each objective function gets its optimal value simultaneously. Our design approach is to first find a set of Pareto-optimal solutions, which can be considered to be best compromises among multiple design objectives. Among these Pareto-optimal solutions, the designer can then select the one solution which he considers to be the best one. In this paper we investigate the optimal design of a Langevin transducer. The design problem is formulated mathematically as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem. The maximum vibration amplitude and the minimum electrical input power are considered as optimization objectives. Design variables involve continuous variables (dimensions of the transducer) and discrete variables (the number of piezoelectric rings and material types). In order to formulate the optimization problem, the behavior of piezoelectric transducers is modeled using the transfer matrix method based on analytical models. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithms are applied in the optimization process and a set of Pareto-optimal designs is calculated. The optimized results are analyzed and the preferred design is determined.

Multiobjective optimization of piezoelectric transducers using evolutionary algorithms

B. Fu, T. Hemsel, J. Wallaschek, in: Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators, 2006, pp. 223-228

Powder coating fabrication by ultrasonic standing wave atomizer

T. Hemsel, C. Henning, C. Kauczor, W. Littmann, in: Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators, 2006, pp. 183-186

Control of Bundled Miniature Ultrasonic Linear Motors

T. Hemsel, M. Mracek, in: Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators, 2006, pp. 313-322

Piezoelectric linear motor concepts based on coupling of longitudinal vibrations

T. Hemsel, M. Mracek, J. Twiefel, P. Vasiljev, Ultrasonics (2006), 44, Supplement, pp. e591 - e596

Classically, rotary motors with gears and spindle mechanisms are used to achieve translatory motion. In means of miniaturization and weight reduction piezoelectric linear motors are of interest. Several ultrasonic linear motors found in literature base on the use of two different vibration modes. Most often flexural and longitudinal modes are combined to achieve an elliptic micro-motion of surface points. This micro-motion is converted to direct linear (or translatory) motion of a driven slider. To gain high amplitudes of the micro-motion and thus having a powerful motor, the ultrasonic vibrator should be driven near the eigenfrequency of its modes. Additionally, low mechanical and electrical losses lead to increased efficiency and large amplitude magnification in resonance. This demands a geometrical design that fits the eigenfrequencies of the two different modes. A frequency-deviation of only a few percent leads to non-acceptable disturbance of the elliptical motion. Thus, the mechanical design of the vibrators has to be done very carefully. Within this contribution we discuss different motor designs based on the coupling of two the same longitudinal vibrations within one structure to generate an elliptic motion of surface points. Different concepts based on piezoelectric plates and Langevin transducers are compared. Benefits and drawbacks against the combination of longitudinal and bending modes will be discussed. Numerical results of the stator vibration as well as motor characteristics are validated by measurements on different prototypes.

Model Based Analysis of Piezoelectric Transformers

T. Hemsel, S. Priya, in: Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators, 2006, pp. 223-228

Model based analysis of piezoelectric transformers

T. Hemsel, S. Priya, Ultrasonics (2006), 44, Supplement, pp. e741 - e745

Piezoelectric transformers are increasingly getting popular in the electrical devices owing to several advantages such as small size, high efficiency, no electromagnetic noise and non-flammable. In addition to the conventional applications such as ballast for back light inverter in notebook computers, camera flash, and fuel ignition several new applications have emerged such as AC/DC converter, battery charger and automobile lighting. These new applications demand high power density and wide range of voltage gain. Currently, the transformer power density is limited to $40 W/cm{^3}$ obtained at low voltage gain. The purpose of this study was to investigate a transformer design that has the potential of providing higher power density and wider range of voltage gain. The new transformer design utilizes radial mode both at the input and output port and has the unidirectional polarization in the ceramics. This design was found to provide 30 W power with an efficiency of 98\% and 30 $\,^{\circ}$C temperature rise from the room temperature. An electro-mechanical equivalent circuit model was developed to describe the characteristics of the piezoelectric transformer. The model was found to successfully predict the characteristics of the transformer. Excellent matching was found between the computed and experimental results. The results of this study will allow to deterministically design unipoled piezoelectric transformers with specified performance. It is expected that in near future the unipoled transformer will gain significant importance in various electrical components.

Focusing cross-fire applicator for ultrasonic hyperthermia of tumors

E. Lierke, T. Hemsel, Ultrasonics (2006), 44, Supplement, pp. e341 - e344

An improved concept for ultrasonic hyperthermia of tumors is presented. This concept is based on past experience of a German government supported project [1], which ended in 1984. It offers a low cost alternative to common RF- and microwave methods for hyperthermia of tumors with volumes between 1 and 40 ml at treatment times between 30 and 60 min. Our new version of the system considerably improves the temperature suppression in the healthy tissue around the target area and enables the adjustment of the beam width to the actual tumor size and the field geometry to the depth and shape of the tumor. The applicator can be used for moderate hyperthermia with tissue overheating up to 10 K or for ablation therapy with short high temperature pulses. Its central area is free for the integration of a commercial ultrasonic diagnostic sector scanner or a Doppler flow sensor in order to support the adjustment of the transducer and to monitor the whole area during the therapy.

Focussing Cross-Fire Applicator for Ultrasonic Hyperthermia of Tumors

E. Lierke, T. Hemsel, in: Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators, 2006, pp. 215-222

Powder Transport by Ultrasonic Waves

B. Mracek, T. Hemsel, M. Mracek, in: Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators, 2006, pp. 177-182

Synergetic driving concepts for bundled miniature ultrasonic linear motors

M. Mracek, T. Hemsel, Ultrasonics (2006), 44, Supplement, pp. e597 - e602

Rotary ultrasonic motors have found broad industrial application in camera lens drives and other systems. Linear ultrasonic motors in contrast have only found limited applications. The main reason for the limited range of application of these very attractive devices seems to be their small force and power range. Attempts to build linear ultrasonic motors for high forces and high power applications have not been truly successful yet. To achieve larger force and higher power, multiple miniaturized motors can be combined. This approach, however, is not as simple as it appears at first glance. The electromechanical behaviour of the individual motors differs slightly due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. The individual motor characteristics are strongly dependent on the driving parameters (frequency, voltage, temperature, pre-stress, etc.) and the driven load and the collective behaviour of the swarm of motors is not just the linear superposition of the individual drive's forces. Thus, the bundle of motors has to be synchronized and controlled appropriately in order to obtain an optimized drive that is not oversized and costly. We have investigated driving and control strategies of a set of linear ultrasonic motors. Our contribution will be divided into three main parts. In part I ultrasonic linear motors will be introduced. In part II driving strategies for a single motor as well as for a bundle of motors will be presented. These concepts will be verified by simulation results and experimental data. In part III a simplified model for the motor's electromechanical behaviour will be given.

Self configuration of a novel miniature ultrasonic linear motor

M. Mracek, P. Vasiljev, T. Hemsel, J. Wallaschek, Solid State Phenomena (2006), 113, pp. 167-172

Model based design of piezoelectric generators utilizing geometrical and material properties

B. Richter, J. Twiefel, T. Hemsel, J. Wallaschek, in: ASME 2006 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 2006

This paper presents a general model based on the electromechanical circuit theory. The model is set up as a mechanical equivalent model for base excited systems and describes the behaviour of a piezoelectric element around one resonance frequency which is sufficient for most practical applications. The model is extended to obtain the influence of geometrical and material properties. The derivated properties are used to describe the parameters of the general model which is easy to handle. Using this model either the calculation of the output power on a specific electric load or the determination of the design of the used piezoelectric element for a needed electric output power is possible. The paper focuses on the design of the ratio of length and width of a piezoelectric bimorph. The validity of the model is shown by the comparison of computed and experimental results.

Comparison of Piezoelectric and Shape Memory Alloy Based Actuators

F. Schiedeck, T. Hemsel, in: Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators, 2006, pp. 239-242

The use of shape memory alloy wires in actuators

F. Schiedeck, T. Hemsel, J. Wallaschek, Solid State Phenomena (2006), 113, pp. 195-198

Energy harvesting with piezoelectric Elements

J. Twiefel, T. Hemsel, C. Kauczor, in: Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Piezoelectric Materials and Applications in Actuators, 2006, pp. 207-212

Model-based design of piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

J. Twiefel, B. Richter, T. Hemsel, J. Wallaschek, 2006

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